Rethinking the Music Business

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COVID-19 had a global impact on health, communities, and the economy. As a result of COVID-19, music festivals, gigs, and events were canceled or postponed across the world. This directly affected the incomes and practices of many artists and the revenue for many entities in the music business. Despite this crisis, however, there are pre-existing trends in the music business – the rise of the streaming economy, technological change (virtual and augmented reality, blockchain, etc.), and new copyright legislation. Some of these trends were impacted by the COVID-19 crisis while others were not.

This book addresses these challenges and trends by following a two-pronged approach: the first part focuses on the impact of COVID-19 on the music business, and the second features general perspectives. Throughout both parts, case studies bring various themes to life. The contributors address issues within the music business before and during COVID-19. Using various critical approaches for studying the music business, this research-based book addresses key questions concerning music contexts, rights, data, and COVID-19. Rethinking the music business is a valuable study aid for undergraduate and postgraduate students in subjects including the music business, cultural economics, cultural management, creative and cultural industries studies, business and management studies, and media and communications.

Acknowledgments

We received a University of Melbourne School of Culture and Communication Publication Support Grant in 2021. This grant funded the copyediting of this book. Thanks to the University of Melbourne, and various administrative staff, for making such grants available. Thanks also to Kate Leeson for copyediting the book and for providing editorial suggestions.

We would also like to thank the other series editors of the Music Business Research book series—of which this contributed volume is a part—for accepting our original proposal: Dennis Collopy, Beate Flath, Sarita M. Stewart, and Carsten Winter.

Guy Morrow, Daniel Nordgård, Peter Tschmuck
May, 2022

Introduction

Abstract Inthischapter,weintroducethebookbyfirstoutliningthechallengesof designing, writing and editing a research-based book during the COVID-19 pandemic. We explain why Part 1 features six chapters that concern the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the music business, while Part 2 is comprised of six chapters that present original insights into the music business in general. We edited this book in solidarity with the various authors who managed to contribute chapters to this volume despite COVID-19-related disruptions and time out from work due to illness. We also edited this book in solidarity with all the participants who contributed to our own research projects that feature in this book and with the participants who took part in our contributing authors’ research projects. Our aim in this book was to provide as holistic a picture of the music business as we could at this time by gathering contributions from authors who were in the United Kingdom, Austria, Zimbabwe, Germany, India, Australia, Norway and the Philippines during the COVID-19 pandemic.

1.1 Book Design

In designing, writing and editing this book, we encountered several challenges. Of course, bringing together a diverse group of scholars and case studies to present a global perspective on the music business during the COVID-19 pandemic meant that several contributing authors and editors contracted COVID-19 during this time, and some of the team behind this book are still suffering from long COVID. The pandemic has made many things more challenging, including the creation of this book. Yet despite this, our contributing authors rose to the challenge, and we managed to submit this book to our publisher (roughly) on time. Likewise, much of the music business itself has stopped and started and adapted and evolved during this time, and it has been fascinating to see how innovation and creativity have been harnessed to regenerate and rethink the music business.

This juxtaposition between the catastrophe of the ongoing COVID-19 disaster and ‘business as usual’ also informed the design of this book. Indeed, another challenge we faced in compiling this book concerned how we could both consider some of the impacts of the COVID-19 crisis on the music business, as well as pre-existing trends in this business that were not directly impacted by this crisis, and research that was conducted prior to the pandemic. To provide as holistic a picture of the music business during this time as possible, we resolved to split the book evenly into two parts. Part 1 features six chapters that concern the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the music business, while Part 2 is comprised of six chapters that present original insights into the music business in general.

1.2 Outline of Part 1

It may be years before we can understand the true impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the music business—we are not able to zoom out far enough at this time as it still encircles and threatens to suffocate us. In Part 1, our contributing authors have only been able to zoom in to analyse some key issues. In Chap. 2, George Musgrave examines media representations of musicians’ mental health during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom (UK). The media narratives that emerged from these many representations are his specific concern, and Musgrave traces two primary ones. The first relates to employment anxiety and the loss of income, while the second concerns musicians’ loss of purpose and thus the existential anxiety faced by many musicians.

While Musgrave does not claim that musicians’ mental health concerns were worse than those of other members of British society during this time, he does argue that his work here is significant because the live music industry—and the music industries in general because the various sectors or industries are very interconnected—was one of the hardest hit by pandemic-related lockdowns. Live music venues were amongst the first to close and the last to open. Musgrave’s discussion of musicians’ eligibility, or lack thereof, for the Self-Employment Income Support Scheme in the UK leads him to consider the particularly poignant question of the economic viability of musicianship and whether, on average, musical work has ever been economically viable.

Continuing with a similar theme, in Chap. 3, Peter Tschmuck, Lukas Hirzberger, Armin Radlherr, Sandra Stini and Nils Wlömert examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on freelance classical musicians in Austria. They do this by working through the results of an online survey they conducted with 1777 participants. They found that the classical musicians who participated in their study suffered less than musicians in other music genres. They argue that this is because these musicians more often combine their freelance work as musicians with fixed- term work for orchestras and work teaching music than musicians who work in other music genres do.

While they claim that almost all musicians suffered pandemic-related income losses, and the points Musgrave makes in Chap. 2 about musicians’ mental health are no doubt also relevant to classical musicians, when they introduced gender into their analysis, Tschmuck et al. found that the pandemic has so far had a different impact on the income situation of women and men. At a first glance, it seems that female artists suffered less from the pandemic than male artists. In relative terms, however, they found that women often lost more than men, despite men having higher absolute income losses than women. Yet female classical musicians were better off than women working in popular music genres in Austria.

In Chap. 4, Paul G. Oliver and Stefan Lalchev examine digital transformation in the music industry and the question of how the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated new business opportunities. Using secondary data, they ‘map the territory’ to uncover new phenomena and identify emerging patterns of behaviour within the music business. They identify five key trends that illustrate how the COVID-19 pandemic has forced practitioners to ‘rethink’ the music business: the evolution of creators, the social audio platforms, the ‘metaverse’, blockchain and non-fungible tokens and the evolution of streaming. They argue that, even though digitisation had been changing the music business landscape for years prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, new trends that emerged within a period of less than 2 years because of the pandemic accelerated numerous new business opportunities. Overall, they con- clude that the pandemic created a ‘perfect storm’ for the music business, which, in turn, led to this business putting much of its resourcing and attention into the digital domain. Within only 2 years, the pandemic has been a catalyst for creative and innovative output that ordinarily might have taken a whole decade.

In Chap. 5, Victoria Blessing Butete uses social capital theory to examine the strategies three Zimbabwean female musicians used to manage their careers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Drawing on her doctoral research into the government’s role in Zimbabwe’s live music sector, Butete uses a case study approach and analyses data gathered through in-depth semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Her overarching finding is that the COVID-19 pandemic impacted the three Zimbabwean female musicians differently and in both positive and negative ways. She notes that, overall, the loss of live music performance opportunities had negative economic, social and cultural impacts. This forced her participants to regenerate their human capital by learning new skills. She argues that this learning process aug- mented their extant social capital and enhanced their proficiency by creating new COVID-19-friendly networks. She claims that her participants utilised their cognitive, bonding, bridging, linking, relational and structural forms of social capital to exploit and expand existing networks and that therefore social capital sustained the three Zimbabwean female musicians who participated in her study by allowing them access to economic, cultural and symbolic capital during the COVID-19 pandemic.

In Chap. 6, Niklas Blömeke, Jan Üblacker, Johannes Krause, Katharina Huseljić and Heiko Rühl explore the COVID-19 pandemic’s impact on live music venues in Germany. They ask the questions: How did COVID-19 and related measures to reduce contact impact live music venues in Germany? Was the cultural value or the social value of live music particularly affected and how? What are the likely longterm consequences for the live music sector? To answer these questions, Blömeke et al. conducted exploratory research during the northern summer of 2020. This included 14 semi-structured interviews with key actors in the live music sector (e.g. club owners, politicians, live music associations). Blömeke et al.’s findings indicate that music venues are confronted with an existential crisis that exceeds their economic pressures. This includes venues in Germany facing the loss of informal support networks within the sector and decreasing ties between artists, venues and audiences. Besides economic effects, they identified three areas of impact that the situation caused by COVID-19 had on cultural value. These are the obstruction of musical creativity and co-creation, general cultural lethargy and disruption of talent development. They also identified three areas of impact on social value: loss of communal experience, loss of voices in political discourse and decreased potential for identity formation. Blömeke et al.’s work here is significant as it highlights the importance of live music events as social spaces and the importance of venues to thelive music ecology.

Chapter 7 concludes Part 1 of the book. In this chapter, Sarah Raine, Haftor Medbøe and José Dias examine how four jazz festivals across the UK adapted their processes and practices to rethink jazz festivals during the COVID-19 pandemic. They explore themes such as pandemic-exposed fragilities, community resilience in the face of adversity and industry recovery. Raine et al. provide a fascinating ‘insiders’ perspective’ into the jazz scene during this time by using their own reflexive positionalities: each of them has built a scholarly career on a personal and pre-existing passion; two of them are also performing musicians, and one of them is the Director of the Board for the Edinburgh Jazz and Blues Festival. Their positioning as both scholars and musicians/participants makes this chapter particularly poignant; it was written in solidarity with their participants, participants who gave up their time to discuss a traumatic period in their lives to share their experi- ences and potential lessons with others. These lessons include understandings of the challenges and opportunities that arose through the shift to virtual live music experiences; the potential longevity of economic models developed during COVID-19; changing relationships with audiences, musicians and funders; and changes in the role of jazz festivals in society.

Musical Bodies, Musical Minds

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An enactive account of musicality that proposes new ways of thinking about musical experience, musical development in infancy, music and evolution, and more.

Musical Bodies, Musical Minds offers an innovative account of human musicality that draws on recent developments in embodied cognitive science. The authors explore musical cognition as a form of sense-making that unfolds across the embodied , environmentally embedded , and sociomaterially extended dimensions that compose the enactment of human worlds of meaning. This perspective enables new ways of understanding musical experience, the development of musicality in infancy and childhood, music’s emergence in human evolution, and the nature of musical emotions, empathy, and creativity.

Developing their account, the authors link a diverse array of ideas from fields including neuroscience, theoretical biology, psychology, developmental studies, social cognition, and education. Drawing on these insights, they show how dynamic processes of adaptive body-brain-environment interactivity drive musical cognition across a range of contexts, extending it beyond the personal (inner) domain of musical agents and out into the material and social worlds they inhabit and influence. An enactive approach to musicality, they argue, can reveal important aspects of human being and knowing that are often lost or obscured in the modern technologically driven world.

Acknowledgments

The collection of ideas, arguments, and insights contained in Musical Bodies, Musical Minds is the result of almost a decade’s collaboration between its three authors. The book reflects our backgrounds as musical performers and music educators, as well as our interests as scholars. As such, Musical Bodies, Musical Minds develops a perspective on human musicality that integrates knowledge from across a range of domains, including the cognitive and biological sciences, developmental studies, pedagogical theory, affective science, philosophical traditions, various branches of music research, and more. In line with this, we hope that Musical Bodies, Musical Minds will contribute to the interdisciplinary orientation that characterizes current musicology and especially to scholarship that explores the “embodied” and “ecological” dimensions of musical perception, cognition, and practice. This research area has produced a number of inspiring books, including Eric Clarke’s Ways of Listening (2005), David Borgo’s Sync or Swarm (2005), Marc Leman’s Embodied Music Cognition (2007), Arnie Cox’s Music and Embodied Cognition (2016), Jonathan De Souza’s Music at Hand (2017), Simon Høff- ding’s A Phenomenology of Musical Absorption (2018), Mariuz Kozak’s Enacting Musical Time (2019), and Mark Reybrouck’s Musical Sense-Making (2020). These texts connect in various ways with the account we offer in Musical Bodies, Musical Minds. However, to our knowledge, Musical Bodies, Musical Minds is the first monograph fully dedicated to developing a comprehen- sive enactive/4E view of human musicality.

In addition to the authors just mentioned, we would also like to acknowledge that many of the chapters that comprise Musical Bodies, Musical Minds began as research articles, some of which involved additional collaborators who contributed in important ways to the ideas presented in this book.

Chapter 5, “Music and Emotion,” is based on an article authored by Schiavio and van der Schyff in collaboration with Julian Cespedes-Guevara and Mark Reybrouck (Schiavio et al., 2017). We thank Julian and Mark for their contribution to that article and for their suggestions on the present chapter. Thanks also to Mark for his comments on chapter 1. Chapter 6, “The Empathic Connection,” is based on an article by van der Schyff and Joel Krueger (2019). Thanks to Joel for reading and commenting on this chapter. Chapter 8, “Teleomusicality,” develops sections that originally appeared in an article coauthored by Schiavio, van der Schyff, Silke Kruse-Weber, and Renee Timmers (2017). Thanks to Renee and Silke for reading and commenting on this revised version. Chapter 9, “Creative Musical Bodies,” is based on an article written with Valerio Velardo, Ashley Walton, and Anthony Chem- ero (van der Schyff et al., 2018). We thank Valerio, Ashley, and Anthony for their contributions to the ideas presented in this chapter.

In the first endnote of each chapter, we indicate our previously published articles that contribute to the discussion in Musical Bodies, Musical Minds. We thank the journal editors and the many anonymous reviewers from whom we received important critical feedback that helped us sharpen our arguments. We would also like to express our appreciation to Ezequiel Di Paolo, who commented on chapter 2; to Tiger Roholt, who commented on chapters 1 and 3; to Luca Barlassina, who commented on an early version of chapter 3; to Tom Froese, who commented on a previous draft of chapter 7; and to Mathias Benedek, who commented on chapter 9.

A huge thank you must also go to Eric Clarke, who facilitated and mentored van der Schyff’s 2017–2019 postdoctoral fellowship hosted by the University of Oxford. Professor Clarke read and made detailed comments on drafts of the opening chapters. He also engaged in numerous informal discussions that helped to clarify many of the themes developed throughout the book. van der Schyff would like to acknowledge the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC) for their financial support of this fellowship. He would also like to thank Professors Nikki Dibben and Susan O’Neill for their generous supervision and support. Schiavio would like to thank Professor Richard Parncutt and his colleagues at the Centre for Systematic Musicology of the University of Graz for extended conversations about and constructive feedback on many of the themes developed in the book. He is also grateful to many friends and colleagues with whom he has recently collaborated, including Mathias Benedek, Michele Biasutti, Nikki Moran, Kevin Ryan, Jan Stupacher, Renee Timmers, Jonna Vuoskoski, and many others. We thank Leigh van der Schyff for her lovely drawings in chapter 2. We would also like to thank Philip Laughlin and the team at MIT Press for their patience and expert assistance. And we are grateful to the anonymous reviewers who read and made useful comments on the final drafts of the manuscript. Last, we express our gratitude and love to our families and friends who supported us during the writing of this book.

Sound and Music for Games: Basics of Digital Audio for Video Games

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Grasp the fundamentals of digital audio work in the context of video games including the basics of middleware such as Fmod and Wwise. We will review software such as Apple's Logic and Garageband, Paul Davis' Ardour, and many other popular digital audio workstations.

We will start with an introduction to the basic terminology of digital audio work while also getting acquainted with current generation audio hardware. We will then discuss the basics of venerable Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) and how it relates to music composition as well as the tools and techniques for writing tracker music/chiptunes. The book also covers plug-in software, soundproofing at home, and voice work.

The book takes a practical approach when tackling both hardware and software components used in cutting edge audio engineering, composition, and audio monitoring.

What You Will Learn
• Understand the fundamentals of digital audio production in the context of video games
• Learn about audio integration with popular middleware solutions and APIs

• Leverage plugin effects software to sculpt your audio to professional levels
• Identify the modern audio file formats and how and when to use them

• Find out the best practices when mixing sound effects and music for video games

Who Is This Book For
The intended readership includes beginners in digital audio engineering who use Windows, macOS, or Linux.

About the Author

Robert Ciesla is an author from Helsinki, Finland. He has a BA in Journalism from Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences and an

MA in Intercultural Encounters from the University of Helsinki. Robert has written five nonfiction books. He has a strong background in audio engineering for bands and video games starting from the tracker/chiptune scene in the 16-bit era of the 1990s at age 12.

Acknowledgments

Many thanks to the Association of Finnish Nonfiction Writers for their support in the production of this book.

Introduction

This book was written for those with a burgeoning passion for video game music and modern audio technology. We’ll start with the absolute fundamentals of digital audio, moving onto topics like digital audio workstations (DAWs) and the venerable MIDI (Musical Instruments Digital Interface) standard. We’ll then cover the sometimes overlooked genre of chiptunes and retro audio hardware. Finally, we take a gander at the basics of modern video game sound solutions as well as music distribution and licensing.

The purpose of this book is simply to arm you with beneficial knowledge when taking on the exciting challenges of video game audio. Even if you have some previous experience in these matters, you may
find some new and useful information from these pages. After finishing this book, you’ll probably feel more comfortable discussing sample rates, tracker software, and the joys of latency. I hope my book serves you well on your audio producer’s journey.

Sincerely, Robert

Drum like a pro: A Complete Guide on Drumming for Beginners

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Do you want to learn how to play the drums? This book covers the fundamentals of drumming, even if you do not have idea where to begin your journey. This book will help you choose the right equipment for your needs, get started playing the drums, and even read music. Some call it a 'drum set,' while others call it a 'drum kit.' Drums, are an instrument with no right or wrong answer when it comes to how many and which sections you may utilize to generate music...

OVERVIEW

•Introduction to drumming
•Drum set components
•How to select drum equipment
•Choosing which drums to purchase
•What materials are used to make drums?
•Drum components
•Common drum pads
•Selecting drum heads
•Selecting drum sticks
•Selecting cymbals
•Selecting drum hardwares
•Purchase earplugs
•Getting your drum kit ready
•Putting together a standard right-handed drum kit
•How to wear a drum head
•Drums tunning
•Getting your toms ready
•Snare drum tuning
•Bass drum tuning
•Counting music: the instructions
•How to learn to read music
•Reading music sheets (standard notes)
•How do you read drum tabs?
•How to care for drumsticks
•Beginner drum lessons
•Considerations to make prior to mounting the throne
•How to operate a metronome
•Creating drum beats
•Performing drum fills
•Rudiments in play
•Preparation for drumming
•Drums for practice
•Locating a drum teacher
•Some of the most common mistakes made by beginner drummers...

PDF Ludwig van Beethoven: The Piano Sonatas; History, Notation, Interpretation

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A comprehensive and immersive survey of thirty-five Beethoven piano sonatas

“Beethoven piano sonatas accompany every pianist, amateur or professional for his or her entire life and constitute one of the most miraculous constants of the human civilization. To help us around the exciting journey through those masterpieces Jan Marisse Huizing combines his expertise, knowledge, and above all his unconditional love for this music.”— Alexander Melnikov, pianist

Beethoven’s piano sonatas are among the iconic cornerstones of the classical music repertoire. Jan Marisse Huizing offers an in-depth study of the sonatas using available autographs, first editions, recordings, and nearly three hundred musical examples.

Digging into the historical background and historical performance practice, the book provides illuminating detail on Beethoven’s pianism as well as his characteristics of notation, form and content, “types of touch,” articulation, beaming, pedal indications, character, rubato, meter, metric constructions, tempo, and metronome marks.

Packed with anecdotes, quotations, and considerable new information, the book will inspire all involved with these masterworks, playing a fortepiano or modern Grand, giving the sense of the composer sitting beside them as he translates his inspiration and ideas into his notation.

Preface

WHILE MANY STUDIES OF Beethoven’s piano sonatas, for example those of Schenker, Tovey, Uhde, Rosen, and many others, concentrate specifically on analytical aspects such as form and harmony, this book has its origins in the need to highlight a number of other, no less important themes.

Questions like the correlation of the musical content and form, knowledge of historical performance practice, and the choice of instrument contribute just as significantly to the insight we can gain into Beethoven’s piano sonatas.

In addition, for a well-considered interpretation, attention must be paid to the manner in which Beethoven expressed his musical objectives, to his own specific sound-image, his pianism, and the way in which he expressed his intentions in the notation. The significance of Beethoven’s handwriting
along with knowledge of the various editions, from the original printing through to the current urtext, are equally necessary for the creation of a convincing interpretation.

Of course, this book also investigates the playing of great interpreters, both past and present, whereby a historical overview is presented of the many recordings that have been made of Beethoven’s piano sonatas, including filmed recordings on DVD.

Many of these subjects came to the fore during my years as professor of piano and piano methodology at the Amsterdam Conservatory, where it was my privilege to find a kindred spirit in the person of my colleague, the pianist Willem Brons. Over the years it was an inspiring journey of exchanging discoveries and ideas about Beethoven interpretation, which led to invaluable contributions for this book. Thanks must also go to pianist/organist Christo Lelie for his continuing support and making available to me his extensive library and archive. Also warmly appreciated were interesting suggestions from my colleagues Albert Brussee, fortepianist Bart van Oort, and the Australian pianist Geoffrey Douglas Madge. In addition, I am grateful to the late Frans Schreuder. His substantial archive was of great importance during my research.

After the first edition of this book was published in German by Schott in 2012 (translation from the Dutch by Matthias Müller), further research strengthened my desire to publish an expanded English edition.

In preparing this manuscript, I would like to thank Dr. Silke Bettermann from the Beethoven-Haus in Bonn for her important information, and my sincere thanks go to Bart van Sambeek for editing several music examples. Furthermore, I must express my gratitude to the late eminent concert pianist and scholar Paul Badura-Skoda. His kind comments and advice were of great value in bringing this book to completion.

The task for this English translation was undertaken by Gerald Mettam on the basis of the original expanded Dutch manuscript. This led to an inspiring collaboration for which I am very grateful. In addition, I have to thank Matthias Müller again, who translated quotations from the German, French, and Italian sources insofar as an original source was not already available (see Bibliography). Furthermore, I must express my thanks to Schott and Universal Edition, whose edition of the sonatas I used for the majority of the music examples. Finally, my thanks go to Yale University Press, in particular and “in order of appearance”: pianist Boris Berman for alerting editor Sarah Miller to the manuscript, language manager Ash Lago, the two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments and suggestions, editor Jaya Chatterjee, author Harry Haskell for his expert editing of the manuscript, editorial assistant Eva Skewes, Millie Piekos for excellent proofreading, and senior production editor Joyce Ippolito. They have all been wonderful. I am pleased that this English edition is now available and hope that this book will be a source of inspiration for all those involved with Beethoven’s piano sonatas—as professionals, as amateurs, or, not least, just out of interest in these masterworks.

PDF The Hallelujah Effect

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This book studies the working efficacy of Leonard Cohen's song Hallelujah in the context of today's network culture. Especially as recorded on YouTube, k.d. lang's interpretation(s) of Cohen's Hallelujah, embody acoustically and visually/viscerally, what Nietzsche named the 'spirit of music'.

Today, the working of music is magnified and transformed by recording dynamics and mediated via Facebook exchanges, blog postings and video sites. Given the sexual/religious core of Cohen's Hallelujah, this study poses a phenomenological reading of the objectification of both men and women, raising the question of desire, including gender issues and both homosexual and heterosexual desire. A review of critical thinking about musical performance as 'currency' and consumed commodity takes up Adorno's reading of Benjamin's analysis of the work of art in the age of mechanical reproduction as applied to music/radio/sound and the persistent role of 'recording consciousness'.

Ultimately, the question of what Nietzsche called the becoming-human-of-dissonance is explored in terms of both ancient tragedy and Beethoven's striking deployment of dissonance as Nietzsche analyses both as playing with suffering, discontent, and pain itself, a playing for the sake not of language or sense but musically, as joy.

General Editor’s Preface

The upheaval that occurred in musicology during the last two decades of the twentieth century has created a new urgency for the study of popular music alongside the development of new critical and theoretical models. A relativistic outlook has replaced the universal perspective of modernism (the international ambitions of the 12-note style); the grand narrative of the evolution and dissolution of tonality has been challenged, and emphasis has shifted to cultural context, reception and subject position. Together, these have conspired to eat away at the status of canonical composers and categories of high and low in music. A need has arisen, also, to recognize and address the emergence of crossovers, mixed and new genres, to engage in debates concerning the vexed problem of what constitutes authenticity in music and to offer a critique of musical practice as the product of free, individual expression.

Popular musicology is now a vital and exciting area of scholarship, and the Ashgate Popular and Folk Music Series presents some of the best research in the field. Authors are concerned with locating musical practices, values and meanings in cultural context, and draw upon methodologies and theories developed in cultural studies, semiotics, poststructuralism, psychology and sociology. The series focuses on popular musics of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. It is designed to embrace the world’s popular musics from Acid Jazz to Zydeco, whether high tech or low tech, commercial or non-commercial, contemporary or traditional.

Professor Derek B. Scott Professor of Critical Musicology University of Leeds

Acknowledgements

The first words to be said on the Hallelujah effect are those of thanks, words that usually go without saying, words that never say enough.

This, when it comes to music, is as it should be, for without music, so Nietzsche contended, life itself would be a mistake, as music transfigures so much of life and to comprehend this is such a challenge for philosophy. The theme in its many modulations is one I have been thinking about for many years, back to the 1970s and 1980s, and maybe all my life; yet despite this personal preoccupation, this book is one that could never have been written alone, in particular not without the electric and personal dynamism that may be traced back to an important catena of emails between myself and Ernest McClain at the end of April and early May 2011. Where other scholars dismiss and sometimes denounce alternate approaches as ones “they do not understand,” McClain “transgressed” this common academic habitus, and this venture and the resultant adventure of this encounter continues to draw my admiration and respect. I could not begin to thank the great musicians, Leonard Cohen, John Cale, k.d. lang, Jane Siberry, Joan Baez—just to name some of the living voices I draw upon here. What is significant, and this is where Adorno’s study of what he called the “current of music” comes in, is that this living power continues in sound and image, on YouTube, as k.d. lang’s powerful performances make very clear, and as one can also see and hear in musicians lost to us, such as Nina Simone, whose performances I also discuss. I am grateful to the filmmaker Percy Adlon for conversation on k.d. lang, to Robert Kory for his kind and very human email correspondence with regard to Leonard Cohen, and I thank Joshua Grange (not only for retweets).

In addition, I gratefully acknowledge Jason Gross’s kind permission to reprint parts of my original essay, “The Birth of k.d. lang’s Hallelujah out of the Spirit of Music,” which appeared in the fall of 2011 in Perfect Sound Forever. I note that Perfect Sound Forever differs from most journals as it also includes a very performative subtitle: Perfect Sound Forever: on line music magazine presents ... This journal is also itself an exemplar, or phenomenological illumination, of the value of an online publication which one might otherwise take for granted as a simple replication or virtual version of text or print. Bloomsbury Books also granted permission to reprint parts of my “Mousiké techné: The Philosophical Praxis of Music in Plato, Nietzsche, Heidegger,” which had originally been invited for a Continuum collection edited by Robert
Burch (to whom personally I also owe special thanks for inspiration and the graciousness of our correspondence) together with Massimo Verdicchio, Gesture and Word: Thinking Between Philosophy and Poetry. I am thankful to Ralf Kläs for permission to use his photography, as I am also indebted to Alois Steiner. I am very grateful to Janet Morgan for permission to use her mother Barbara Morgan’s astonishing photography; I thank Ursula Zollna, Peter Zollna’s widow, for permission to reprint his photograph of Theodor Adorno; and I am grateful to Michael Schwarz for his help. I thank Bettina Erlenkamp of the Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Dresden for her help. I also thank Katharina Siegmann of the Schirn Kunsthalle in Frankfurt and I acknowledge the kind offices of the Villa Stuck for permission to use Franz von Stuck’s Orpheus on the cover of this book. I am grateful to Joan Baez for permission to cite Diamonds and Rust and I thank Jane Siberry for her permission to quote from her song, love is everything. In addition, I acknowledge Sony/ATV and Random House for permission to cite Leonard Cohen’s Hallelujah here. But above all, I thank the artist, I thank the poet Leonard Cohen for his song.

A version of this essay may be heard and seen, which synaesthetic combination is the heart of media today, in the form of a video lecture, available on YouTube and, in a correspondingly higher quality, in a video stream on the Fordham University Library video on demand website. I am grateful to the Director of the Fordham Library, James McCabe, and to Michael Considine, Director of Information Technology Services at the Fordham University Library, for making the production and hosting of this video a possibility. I thank the musicologist and television and video expert (and ice climber) Dr Mat Schottenfeld of Fordham University for his assistance, kindness, and productive expertise. I also thank Kate Motush for her help, indirectly, in matters concerning video.

I am grateful to Derek B. Scott as editor of the Folk and Popular Music Series at Ashgate. As an admirer of his work, I am grateful for his input which made a great difference to me. I also thank Heidi Bishop, Publisher, Laura Macy, Senior Commissioning Editor, Music Studies, as well as Pam Bertram, Senior Editor at Ashgate, in addition to expressing my special gratitude to Patrick Cole for his careful and invaluable help in copyediting.

I also thank, for their responses to my inquiries on this theme, and for kind words on this project, Geraldine Finn, Robert Fink, Lori Burns, Ruth A. Solie, and Rose Rosengarde Subotnik. I am also grateful to Lydia Goehr who gave me the opportunity to present a twitter-length version of the final chapter in the aesthetics seminar that she hosts at Columbia University in the fall of 2012. I also thank Fawzia Mustafa of Fordham University for the invitation to talk about this at Women’s Studies Workshop at the same time. I also thank in advance, because of all his inspiration and kindness past, Gary Shapiro for organizing a philosophy panel on Leonard Cohen at the 2013 World Conference of Philosophy in Athens and for asking me to take part.

My friends and colleagues are named in part either in the text or the notes to the text, but I wish to express my gratitude to Eileen Sweeney who was very helpful to me on these themes, to Debra Bergoffen, to Nicole Fermon, to Frank Boyle, and to Fred Harris and Matthew McGuire. For friendship and for musical resonances, I thank Susan Nitzberg, Hans-Gerald Hödl, George Leiner and Bettina Bergo, as well as Nanette Nielsen and Tomas McAuley. In addition to my gratitude to Claire Katz, I also thank Andrew Benjamin for reporting to me that, in the course of one of his lecture tours, a student announced to him that he was “famous” because he was mentioned on YouTube in my lecture on k.d. lang. This is, of course, not true, but it is a charming notion all the same. I thank my husband Tracy Strong for his love and conversation, intellectual and musical. I also thank Richard Cobb-Stevens for his positive response (he is a k.d. lang fan), as well as Patrick Heelan, S.J. for his amused enthusiasm, and William J. Richardson, S.J. In addition, I am thankful to twitter colleagues for kind words, particularly Terence Blake, but also @synaesthete99, @dance_historian, @pettrust and Mark Carrigan and, just for fun, Tristan Burke—@svejky. For his help, long ago now, for his bravery in publishing an essay on the Sokal hoax, and all the complexities of hermeneutics that go along with that, I thank, just gratuitously, in the spirit of Hallelujah, Jeffrey Perl, editor of common knowledge; and another editor whom I admire for similar graciousness, William MacAllister, editor of International Studies in the Philosophy of Science. In the musical arena, where friendship crosses, I am grateful to my friends Annette Hornbacher and Jochen Schönleber for their responses to this work, important because for many years they have been involved in music together, performative on every level, Jochen as ongoing artistic producer and Annette as past stage director of Rossini in Wildbad. In addition, I am enthusiastically grateful to Alexander Nehamas and David Allison (I love them both), as well as to Alphonso Lingis and Stanley Aronowitz. I also thank my students, especially Michael Fabano and Thomas Beddoe. Craig Konnoth and Carrie Gillespie have my gratitude, as well as Jeff Bussolini who now teaches at CUNY in New York City, and I have to say, all my students as well.

I thank Holger Schmid for conversation and for the extraordinary friendship we have shared for more than two decades. And here too, and finally, I thank Bill Strongin, who taught me about David—and his songs.

Weimar, 12 June 2012

The Psychology of Music (Cognition and Perception)

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The Psychology of Music serves as an introduction to an interdisciplinary field in psychology, which focuses on the interpretation of music through mental function. This interpretation leads to the characterization of music through perceiving, remembering, creating, performing, and responding to music.

In particular, the book provides an overview of the perception of musical tones by discussing different sound characteristics, like loudness, pitch and timbre, together with interaction between these attributes. It also discusses the effect of computer resources on the psychological study of music through computational modeling. In this way, models of pitch perception, grouping and voice separation, and harmonic analysis were developed. The book further discusses musical development in social and emotional contexts, and it presents ways that music training can enhance the singing ability of an individual.

The book can be used as a reference source for perceptual and cognitive psychologists, neuroscientists, and musicians. It can also serve as a textbook for advanced courses in the psychological study of music.

Preface

The aim of this book is to interpret musical phenomena in terms of mental function—to characterize the ways in which we perceive, remember, create, perform, and respond to music. The book is intended as a comprehensive reference source for perceptual and cognitive psychologists, neuroscientists, and musicians, as well as a textbook for advanced courses on the psychology of music.

In 1982, when the first edition of The Psychology of Music was published, this interdisciplinary field was in its infancy. Music had no established position within psychology, and few music theorists acknowledged the relevance of empirical research. The book, which drew together the diverse and scattered literature that had accumulated over the previous decade, was written by a group of visionaries from different areas of scholarship—psychologists, neuroscientists, engineers, music theorists and composers—who were committed to establishing this new discipline.

During the years since the first edition was published the field has expanded rapidly, and there have been enormous strides in our understanding of the psychology of music, particularly since publication of the second edition of this volume in 1999. This progress has been due in part to the development of computer technology, and more specifically to the availability of new software that has enabled researchers to generate, analyze and transform sounds with ease, precision and flexibility. Developments in neuroscience—in particular neuroimaging techniques—have led to an enormous increase in findings concerning the neuroanatomical substrates of musical processing. In addition, input from music theorists and composers continues to play a central role in addressing fundamental questions about the way we process musical structures.

The massive development of research on the psychology of music has resulted in the recent publication of a number of highly readable books on the subject written for a general audience. Among these are Oliver Sacks’ Musicophilia, Philip Ball’s The Music Instinct, and Daniel Levitin’s This Is Your Brain On Music. William Thompson’s Music, Thought, and Feeling serves as an excellent textbook for undergraduate courses on the psychology of music. Other recently published and highly successful books include John Sloboda’s The Musical Mind, Aniruddh Patel’s Music, Language, and the Brain, and David Huron’s Sweet Anticipation. The present volume serves to provide in-depth coverage of research findings and theories in the different subareas of the field, written by world-renowned authorities in these subareas.

The volume opens with a chapter on The Perception of Musical Tones, by Andrew Oxenham (Chapter 1), which sets the stage for those that follow. Oxenham first reviews psychoacoustic methodology. Then drawing on behavioral and physio- logical evidence, together with theoretical models, he provides a thoughtful overview of findings concerning tone perception, particularly in musical contexts. Here we find discussions of loudness, pitch, and timbre, together with interactions between these attributes.
Consonance, dissonance, and roughness are also explored, as are higher-level interactions that occur when multiple pitches are presented.

The understanding of timbre perception is of central importance to composers of new music. In his interdisciplinary chapter Musical Timbre Perception (Chapter 2), Stephen McAdams provides a detailed exploration of research on timbre, particularly involving the multidimensional scaling of timbre spaces.
Such spaces have been put to intriguing use, for example in defining and exploiting fine-grained relationships between timbres. McAdams also discusses the perceptual blending of instruments to create new timbres, as well as the use of timbre to organize events into coherent groupings and to achieve perceptual separations between groupings.

Johan Sundberg’s provocative chapter on Perception of Singing (Chapter 3) addresses many puzzling questions. For example, how is it that we can hear a singer’s voice against a loud orchestral background? How are we able to identify sung vowels, even when these differ considerably from those of speech? How do we identify the gender and register of a particular singer even when the range of his or her voice is common to all singers and several registers? These questions are expertly addressed in the context of an overview of the acoustics of the singing voice.

In Intervals and Scales (Chapter 4), William Thompson examines our sensitivity to pitch relationships in music, and to the musical scales that help us organize these relationships—issues that are essential to the understanding of music perception. The chapter addresses questions such as how musical intervals are processed by the auditory system, whether certain intervals have a special perceptual status, and why most music is organized around scales. One discussion of particular importance concerns the characteristics of scales that appear as cross-cultural universals, and those that appear to be culture-specific.

The genesis of absolute pitch has intrigued musicians for centuries, and this is explored in Absolute Pitch (Deutsch, Chapter 5). Is it an inherited trait that becomes manifest as soon as the opportunity arises? Alternatively, can it be acquired at any time through extensive practice? Or does it depend on exposure to pitches in association with their names during a critical period early in life? These hypotheses are explored, and evidence for a strong tie with speech and language is discussed. The neuroanatomical substrates of absolute pitch are examined, as are relationships between this abililty and other abilities.

Consider what happens when we listen to a performance by an orchestra. The sounds that reach our ears are produced by many instruments playing in parallel. How does our auditory system sort out this mixture of sounds, so that we may choose to listen to a particular instrument, or to a particular melodic line? Grouping Mechanisms in Music (Deutsch, Chapter 6) examines this and related questions, drawing from perceptual and physiological studies, together with input from music theorists. It is also shown that listeners may perceptually reorganize what they hear, so that striking illusions result.

The next chapter, on The Processing of Pitch Combinations (Deutsch, Chapter 7) explores how pitch is represented in the mind of the listener at different levels of abstraction. The chapter examines how listeners organize pitches in music so as to perceive coherent phrases, and it is argued that at the highest level of abstraction music is represented in the form of coherent patterns that are linked together as hierarchical structures. The chapter also surveys research on short-term memory for different features of tone, and explores a number of musical illusions that are related to speech.

With the development of computer resources, computational modeling has assumed increasing importance in the field of music cognition—particularly in combination with behavioral and physiological studies. In Computational Models of Music Cognition (Chapter 8), David Temperley provides a thoughtful overview and evaluation of research in the field. He examines models of key and meter identification in detail. In addition, he discusses models of pitch perception, grouping and voice separation, and harmonic analysis. Models of music performance (includ- ing expressivity) are evaluated, as are models of musical experience. Finally, com- puter algorithms for music composition are considered.

Research concerning temporal aspects of music perception and cognition has expanded considerably over the last decade. In Structure and Interpretation of Rhythm in Music (Chapter 9), Henkjan Honing provides an overview of findings concerning the perception of rhythm, meter, tempo, and timing, from both a music theoretic and a cognitive perspective. He also considers how listeners distill a discrete rhythmic pattern from a continuous series of intervals, and emphasizes that rhythms as they are perceived often deviate considerably from the temporal patterns that are presented. Related to this, the roles of context, expectations and long- term familiarity with the music are discussed.

The performance of music draws on a multitude of complex functions, including the visual analysis of musical notations, translating these into motor acts, coordinating information from different sensory modalities, employing fine motor skills, and the use of auditory feedback. In Music Performance: Movement and Coordination (Chapter 10), Caroline Palmer addresses these issues, particularly focusing on recent work involving the use of new motion capture and video analysis techniques. She also considers research on ensemble playing, in particular how musicians conform the details of their performance to those of other members of the ensemble.

Laurel Trainor and Erin Hannon, in Musical Development (Chapter 11), address fundamental issues concerning the psychology of music from a developmental perspective. Following a discussion of musical capacities at various stages of development, the authors consider innate and environmental influences, including the roles played by critical periods. They consider those aspects of musical processing that appear universal, and those that appear specific to particular cultures. They also review findings indicating that music and language have overlapping neurological substrates. As a related issue, the authors examine effects of musical training on linguistic and other cognitive abilities.

Continuing with Music and Cognitive Abilities (Chapter 12), Glenn Schellenberg and Michael Weiss provide a detailed appraisal of associations between music and other cognitive functions. The chapter discusses cognitive ability immediately following listening to music (termed the “Mozart effect”), the effects of background music on cognitive function, and associations between musical training and various cognitive abilities. The authors provide evidence that musical training is associated with general intelligence, and more specifically with linguistic abilities. They argue, therefore, that musical processing is not solely the function of specialized modules, but also reflects general properties of the cognitive system.

Isabelle Peretz, in The Biological Foundations of Music: Insights from Congenital Amusia (Chapter 13), stresses the opposing view—that musical ability is distinct from language, and is subserved primarily by specialized neural networks. Here she focuses on congenital amusia—a musical disability that cannot be attributed to mental retardation, deafness, lack of exposure, or brain damage after birth. She discusses evidence for an association of this condition with an unusual brain organization, and provides evidence that congenital amusia has a genetic basis.

Relationships between musical ability and other abilities are further considered by Catherine Wan and Gottfried Schlaug, in Brain Plasticity Induced by Musical Training (Chapter 14). The authors point out that music lessons involve training a host of complex skills, including coordination of multisensory information with bimanual motor activity, development of fine motor skills, and the use of auditory feedback. They review findings showing effects of musical training on brain organization, and they focus on research in their laboratory that explores the therapeutic potential of music-based interventions in facilitating speech in chronic stroke patients with aphasia, and in autistic children.

The reason why music invokes emotions has been the subject of considerable debate. In their chapter on Music and Emotion (Chapter 15) Patrik Juslin and John Sloboda provide a thoughtful overview of findings and theories in the field. They draw an important distinction between emotion as expressed in music, and emotion as induced in the listener, pointing out that there is no simple relation between the two. They hypothesize that many of the characteristics of musical communication can best be explained, at least in part, in terms of a code for expression of the basic emotional categories by the human voice.

In Comparative Music Cognition: Cross-Species and Cross-Cultural Studies (Chapter 16), Aniruddh Patel and Steven Demorest address two issues of funda- mental importance to the understanding of musical processing. First, which musical capacities are uniquely human, and which do we share with nonhuman species? In addressing this issue, the authors shed light on the evolution of musical abilities. The second issue concerns the enormous diversity of human music across cultures. Theories and research findings that are based on the music of a single tradition are in principle limited in their application. The authors present evidence that certain aspects of music cross cultural lines while others are culture-specific, so clarifying the scope of existing theory.

The book concludes with Robert Gjerdingen’s Psychologists and Musicians: Then and Now (Chapter 17), which supplies an engaging and informative overview of past and present thinking about the psychology of music. In reviewing approaches to this subject over the centuries, Gjerdingen contrasts those that stress low-level factors such as the physiology of the inner ear with those that consider musical processing in terms of complex, high-order functions. The chapter includes intriguing biographical information concerning some of the notable contributors to the field, which are reflected in their formal writings about music and musical pro- cessing. The chapter also provides a critical overview of the psychology of music as it stands today.

An interdisciplinary volume such as this one can only be considered a group endeavor, and I am grateful to all the authors, who have devoted so much time and thought in bringing the book to fruition. I am grateful to Nikki Levy and Barbara Makinster for their help, and am particularly grateful to Kirsten Chrisman, Publishing Director of Life Sciences Books at Elsevier, for her wise and effective guidance, and to Katie Spiller for her expertise and professionalism in producing the book.

Diana Deutsch

Song Writing For Beginners

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Yes, this book is designed entirely to share those secrets that will inspire you to write that great song that you know you can! And once the creativity really starts flowing, we'll create great habits and write even more, each and every day. Get down to writing the music and the lyrics you know that you can because writer's block is a fantasy. You just need inspiration.

Have you always wanted to put your thoughts and feelings into the form of musical lyrics but couldn't quite make the transition? If so, then Song Writing For Beginners. Inside you will find everything you need to walk you through the lyrics-writing process to ensure you go from novice to maestro in no time flat. Writing successful lyrics is all about feeling strong emotions about a person, event or set of circumstances and expressing those feelings in a unique, well thought out way. The rest is simply understanding the proper placement of lines and verse and knowing how to properly expand upon any initial ideas you may have until they form the type of cohesive thought that is easy to set to music. This guide will walk you through all of the particulars in such a way that you can't help but come up with the basic outlines of a song, if not a rough version of the whole thing. Let your inner lyricist out for a spin, consider picking up this guide today.

Here is a preview of what you'll learn:

  • A breakdown of common song and chorus/verse structures
  • Surefire tips to ensure you make the most of any inspiration
  • Guaranteed methods of improving your word choice for maximum results
  • Specific chapters detailing extra tips for writing love songs, rock songs and rap songs
  • Much, much more!
If you want to develop as a songwriter, possibly even with the goal of going pro, then these are topics you need to think about.

Introduction

Your average songwriter does more than scribble down a few rhymes and slap on a beat or harmony. Songwriting involves writing meaningful lyrics, developing a good melody, and arranging that lyric to a specific musical style, harmonic structure, and rhythm.

Some songwriters might specialize in one aspect like lyrics or arranging, and then work with a cowriter that balances out their own strengths and weaknesses. Not all songwriters are performers, and many of the Top 40 songs that we hear over and over on Spotify or Pandora are written by an experienced songwriter who then provides their song to top-level talent to record it.

Every jingle that you hear and children’s song that you remember had an original songwriter, even if they have been forgotten for generations. The same can be said for musicals, sacred music, and opera. Anytime a lyric is put to a melody, you can bet that a songwriter played a key role.

Music as Cultural Heritage and Novelty

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This book provides a multifaceted view on the relation between the old and the new in music, between tradition and innovation. This is a much-debated issue, generating various ideas and theories, which rarely come to unanimous conclusions. Therefore, the book offers diverse perspectives on topics such as national identities, narrative strategies, the question of musical performance and musical meaning.

Alongside themes of general interest, such as classical repertoire, the music of well-established composers and musical topics, the chapters of the book also touch on specific, but equally interesting subjects, like Brazilian traditions, Serbian and Romanian composers and the lullaby. While the book is mostly addressed to researchers, it can also be recommended to students in musicology, ethnomusicology, musical performance, and musical semiotics.

The series originates from the need to create a more proactive platform in the form of monographs and edited volumes in thematic collections, to contribute to the new emerging fields within art and humanistic research, and also to discuss the ongoing crisis of the humanities and its possible solutions, in a spirit that should be both critical and self-critical.

“Numanities” (New Humanities) aim at unifying the various approaches and potentials of arts and humanities in the context, dynamics and problems of current societies. The series, indexed in Scopus, is intended to target a broad academic audi- ence. Aside from taking interest in work generally deemed as ‘traditional humanities research’, Numanities are also focused on texts which meet the demands of societal changes. Such texts include multi/inter/cross/transdisciplinary dialogues between humanities and social, or natural sciences. Moreover, the series is interested also in what one may call “humanities in disguise”, that is, works that may currently belong to non-humanistic areas, but remain epistemologically rooted in a humanistic vision of the world. We also welcome are less academically-conventional forms of research animated by creative and innovative humanities-based approaches, as well as applied humanities. Lastly, this book series is interested in forms of investigations in which the humanities monitor and critically asses their scientific status and social condition.

This series will publish monographs, edited volumes, and commented translations.

Preface

Old and new, tradition and innovation, and heritage and novelty: these complementary categories, where they intersect and how they relate to one another, represent the basic premise for this volume. The debate around these notions, a commonplace in the study of culture, has nurtured many reflections within an area of musicological research that belongs to classical studies, comparative musicology, music anthropology and sociology alike. There can be no innovation without a tradition to refer to, and tradition always stems from what was new at a certain time in history. It goes without saying that we are dealing with a virtually infinite array of possible subjects, approaches and standpoints, which make such a general theme all the more appealing.

Readers of this volume will find a collection of topics originally introduced at the 14th International Congress on Musical Signification, held at the “Gheorghe Dima” Music Academy of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. These studies reflect the major purpose of this meeting, which was to re-examine some of the assumptions upon which the analysis of music has been based traditionally, and to propose ways in which not only these assumptions, but also recent methods and perspectives can open new pathways in musicological research. In these studies, the authors, leading experts in our field, as well as excellent young scholars, invite the readers to explore a vast cultural territory spanning from Serbia to Brazil, from Romania to Poland, and from Hungary to the United States, with the common purpose of investigating various musical phenomena in relationship with the tradition they belong to and how they forge—or are forged by—the modernity of their own times. What also unites these papers, belonging to scholars from different musicological traditions and focused on otherwise heterogeneous topics, is the shared belief that music signifies that it has a meaning and it has a message. Thus, musical signification stands at the core of this collection.

The book is divided into five sections. Part I is dedicated to broader views on music history. Eero Tarasti’s study sets the tone for the volume, contextualizing the central concept of “modern” and considering it from multiple angles—existential, philosophical and phenomenological. To find its meaning in music, Tarasti looks back to the beginning of the twentieth century and explores modernity as it manifested
in various geographical regions. “Modern” is then analyzed from a semiotic standpoint. An important aspect of Tarasti’s study is the distinction he operates between “innovation” and “novelty.”

Konstantin Zenkin discusses at length some of the paradigms that articulate European classical music, among which he analyzes speech, gesture-dance-ritual and the laws of natural processes. With special focus on the twentieth century, Konstantin Zenkin points to Igor Stravinsky as the leading figure of a generation that fueled radical changes while never abandoning the heritage of the predecessors.

In her interdisciplinary approach connecting music to literature and neurosciences, Márta Grabócz examines the invariants and universals and their influence on memory. She looks at the musical topics as a special type of invariants, with concrete examples from Classicism and Romanticism and from the works of composers such as Liszt and Mahler.

Dario Martinelli takes the debate around the two main concepts of this volume into the field of popular music: music videos are considered from the angle of historical semiotics, i.e., defined and classified according to their main stylistic traits, followed back to their roots in the late nineteenth century and marked by the revolutionary achievements of The Beatles.

Part II deals with the musical text from the point of view of philosophy and narrative strategies. Paulo C. Chagas proposes a phenomenological approach of the relationship between music and affect, discussing concepts such as “autopoiesis,” “self-organization” and “self-realization.” The same phenomenological perspective is subsequently used to look into electroacoustic music and the musics of Morton Feldman and Yannis Xenakis.

Mark Reybrouck’s paper discusses how listening to music creates a multi-layered experience and how the meaning of music comes from the complex interaction between the senses, physiology, behavior and cognition.

Takemi Sosa’s study focuses on narrativity and musical gestures. Byron Almén’s and Eero Tarasti’s theories, among others, are taken as references and applied to examples from Beethoven and Mahler.

Narrativity is also the concept at the center of Joan Grimalt’s research, this time oriented toward the instrumental music of the Classical era and the theory of musical topics. Joan Grimalt is particularly interested in finding the source of the musical humor and explores some of its various instances in the music of the Viennese composers.

Part III comprises studies on musical performance. Juha Ojala explores it from a semiotic perspective: the musical work is seen as a legisign, whereas the performance as a sinsign. The performer’s creativity, its boundaries and constraints, as well as the performer’s “working space” are among the main concepts analyzed.

Eveliina Sumelius-Lindblom examines Adorno’s critical theory from the performer’s standpoint, whereas the two methods she uses (conceptual analysis and embodied intertextuality) concern the act of musical performance in itself. This theo- retical basis is then used to explain Stravinsky’s neoclassicism and the substantial intertextual ramifications that define it.

Part IV of the volume focuses on the issue of national identities. Thus, self and identity are the two main concepts around which Ewa Schreiber builds her research. The two paradigms she chooses to exemplify her theoretical findings are the modern composers György Ligeti and Jonathan Harvey, two apparently diametrically opposed personalities as far as their views on the concept of identity are concerned, but who, nevertheless, share a common ground.

Iwona Sowkinska-Fruhtrunk examines the concepts of perception and mimetic hypothesis as theorized by Arnie Cox, which she applies to Schoenberg’s Chamber Symphony.

Miloš Bralovic ́’s study is dedicated to Serbian composer Stanojlo Rajicˇic ́ and, more specifically, to the musical references he made to other composers, to how these references shaped Rajicˇic ́’s own vocabulary and how the two works chosen for a detailed analysis reflect the maturity of his style.
Dániel Nagy discusses Béla Bartók’s reception in Hungary, where he was considered as the leading representative of the cultural identity of the country. Dániel Nagy examines the place that Bartók occupies in the Hungarian discourse on national iden- tity and the influence that this discourse had on the musicological research on the composer.

Elena Boanca ̆ brings to the foreground a Romanian artist whose international reputation is mainly due to his successful career as a conductor, but who was also an outstanding composer. His musical career is scrutinized through the relationship with the communist regime of Silvestri’s native land.

Part V is dedicated to Brazilian traditions and also pays homage to a country from which many scholars preoccupied with musical signification have emerged. Ricardo Nogueira de Castro Monteiro analyzes, from a semiotic perspective, how myths and rituals are structured and provides the case study on the Reisado, a specific type of Epiphany celebration, encountered in the Brazilian region of Cariri.

Heloísa de Duarte Valente presents a history of the musical genre of fado, seen as a link between Brazil, its country of origin, and Portugal. Special attention is given to the Brazilian city of Santos, the place with the largest population of Portuguese immigrants.

Rodrigo Felicissimo’s study is a comparative analysis of Villa-Lobos’s tone poem Uirapuru, Stravinsky’s Firebird suite and Sibelius’s Tapiola, with the aim of revealing the common ground of musical signifiers that are to be found in these works. Conducting the research of primary documents that attest to the compositional process of the three works, Rodrigo Felicissimo discusses issues related to legends, myths and nature, and how they define national identities and musical styles.

I would like to express my gratitude to the authors for their contribution and commitment to making this volume possible, and I hope the readers will enjoy these pages as much as we enjoyed putting them together.

Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Oana Andreica
February 2022

MusicQuake: The Most Disruptive Moments in Music (Culture Quake)

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Discover music that dared to be different, risked reputations and put careers in jeopardy — causing fascination and intrigue in some and rejection and scorn in others. This is what happens when people take tradition and rip it up.

MusicQuake tells the stories of 50 pivotal albums and performances that shook the world of modern music — chronicling the fascinating tales of their creation, reception, and legacy. Tracing enigmatic composers, risqué performers, and radical songwriters — this books introduces the history of 20th century music in a new light.

From George Gershwin and John Cage to Os Mutantes and Fela Kuti; from Patti Smith and The Slits to Public Enemy and Missy Elliott — by discussing each entry within the context of its creation, the book will give readers true insight into why each moment was so pivotal and tell the stories surrounding the most exciting music ever produced. Some were shocking, others confusing, beautiful, and surreal; some were scorned on release, others were chart toppers; and yet more inspired entire movements and generations of new musicians.

These cutting-edge works, which celebrate novelty, technology, and innovation, help define what music is today — acting as prime examples of how powerful songs can be.

This book is from the Culture Quake series, which looks into iconic moments of culture which truly created paradigm shifts in their respective fields. Also available are ArtQuake, FilmQuake and FashionQuake.

INTRODUCTION

The whole premise of this book is the overturning of expectations. Sometimes that goes hand in hand with uproar – a concert-hall riot, say, or the outcry at an uncomfortable lyric, or plain disbelief at what is being presented as ‘music’. But the 50 explosive moments covered here pushed the art form forwards, redefined and renewed it, whether it was appreciated at the time or only later.

Such moments don’t spring forth fully formed out of a vacuum. Igor Stravinsky’s 1913 score for the ballet The Rite of Spring borrowed from traditional folk songs, not least in its jarring rhythms. And by around 1910, Arnold Schoenberg was well on his way to instigating the most radical shake-up in musical theory for centuries, but had once composed in the Late Romantic style and was influenced (and championed) by Gustav Mahler.

Many of these turning points were made possible by advances in technology, and we’ll look at these in tandem. The change from analogue recording, onto cylinders or primitive disks, to electronic recording in the 1920s boosted audio clarity – important when a soloist is making history. (Louis Armstrong’s Hot Five and Hot Seven studio sessions straddled the change-over.) The introduction of microphones allowed for greater subtlety and nuance in a vocal performance; magnetic tape laid the ground for multitracking.

This book also examines how technological innovation can bring about unexpected shifts in the zeitgeist – witness the ructions Napster wrought and the threats to the hegemony of the music industry. And when it’s ‘mis- used’, technology can open doors we weren’t aware were even there: sound recordings slowed down, cut up and edited by the likes of Pierre Schaeffer, Steve Reich or Tom Moulton (all discussed in the book) become orphaned from their original context, alien and intriguing. In the Bronx sometime in the 1970s, inspired DJs evolved new sonic possibilities by ‘scratching’ with vinyl records. And the ready availability of budget samplers such as the Akai MPC series in the late 1980s further transformed music-making, enabling untrained musicians to collage together snippets from existing recordings, a breakthrough that forged the iconic textures of old-school hip-hop sound.

In the 1960s, forward-thinking minds found new and thrilling ways of ‘mis-using’ recording studios too, repurposing them from a means of faithfully recording live performance into an Aladdin’s Cave for creating new aural worlds that couldn’t be reproduced on stage. You can hear this in the extraordinary sound palettes dreamed up by technically savvy, maverick spirits such as the British producer Joe Meek, Daphne Oram, who founded the BBC Radiophonic Workshop, and Delia Derbyshire, who worked there.

Exceptional female creatives such as Derbyshire often found their innovations underappreciated, and her role in the evolution of electronic sound was acknowledged only in retrospect. A microcosm of historical injustice right there: ‘Women are the glue,’ Björk told Pitchfork in 2015. ‘It’s invisible, what women do.’ Flick through this book and you’ll notice that some of its most uncompromising artistic statements were made by women, from Billie Holiday’s ‘Strange Fruit’ (1939) through Brigitte Fontaine’s Comme à la Radio (1969) and Patti Smith’s Horses (1975) to the Slits’ Cut (1979). Over the last 50 years, few artists have been as daringly innovative, while operating within pop’s parameters, as Kate Bush and Björk. Today, the balance is somewhat redressed with the bold statements (musical and otherwise) of formidable female artists such as Beyoncé – a pop-culture deity who introduced a socio-political edge to what was already a stellar career, and added a new dimension to her art in the process.

As Jimi Hendrix permanently changed perceptions of what a guitar could do, so others altered the fabric of music so radically that the reverberations of their legacy endured for years, some still resonating today. John Cage questioned musical conventions rigorously, engineering new tonalities for the piano and upturning accepted ideas of what constitutes ‘music’. Kraftwerk’s retrofuturistic synth pop influenced such disparate artists as David Bowie and Brian Eno (who was also deeply indebted to Cage’s radical artistic philosophy), Bronx hip-hoppers Afrika Bambaataa and the fledgling Run-DMC, pioneers of Detroit techno including Derrick May and Juan Atkins, and Daft Punk, who themselves reshaped dance music at the turn of the 21st century.

You’ll also discover how a stimulating cross-pollination of ideas makes for unlikely kindred spirits. Stravinsky’s development of a new rhythmic language – involving syncopation and unexpected accents – as well as harmonic innovations in The Rite of Spring resonated warmly with jazz musicians. Charlie Parker assimilated the opening notes of the Rite into his solo on ‘Salt Peanuts’ during a performance in Paris in 1949, and delighted the composer when (without acknowledging his presence) he dropped the opening notes of Stravinsky’s 1910 suite The Firebird into the second chorus of his song ‘Ko-Ko’ at Manhattan’s Birdland Jazz Club.

Karlheinz Stockhausen’s interest in producing sounds from unorthodox sources – and blending electronically generated sonics with acoustic ones – famously impacted on the Beatles’ Paul McCartney (for whom Gesang der Jünglinge was ‘my big favourite plick-plop piece of his’). And Stockhausen peers out from the cover of their 1967 opus Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band, a brooding face behind the shoulder of comedian W.C. Fields. That marriage of avant-garde risk-taking with a pop sensibility characterizes some of the most influential works discussed here, from the Velvet Underground & Nico’s debut album (1967) to Jimi Hendrix’s scorching reinterpretation of the US national anthem (1969), the dizzying production games on Missy Elliott’s ground-breaking Supa Dupa Fly (1997) or Radiohead’s wrong-footing Kid A (2000).

Most of these pivotal 50 events are recordings, although there’s space too for a handful of extraordinary live performances that caused quakes of their own. You’ll also find a series of features running through the book as a complement to the main entries, offering further insight into them, or into a related area. Part of this commentary involves tracing the revolution in the way we listen to music, and how this has affected music-makers. Among the issues this throws up is the role of the album in the 21st century – whether it still has relevance, how its format has evolved to include visual complements, and how artists have experimented with the process of an album release.

Think of this book as a tale of 50 phoenixes, rising blazingly new from the ashes of the everyday: 50 fifth columnists within pop’s castle; 50 windows into the future.

PDF Music Theory for Everyone

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Learn music theory today with the simplest, fastest and most effective method available. With this comprehensive course, you will master the essentials of music theory in a fraction of the time it would take using traditional methods.

Learn music theory in the easiest and fastest way possible! Avoid the long, boring hours of practice and lessons with thousands of exercises. This course is a short and sweet way to learn about music theory. At the end of this course, you will have learned everything there is to know about melody and rhythm, chords, scales and intervals to start making your music.

Forget about memorising thousands of chords or using chord sheets. Learn with a method that is easy to apply, practical and effective, allowing you to build any scale or chord on the spot like a pro!

We show you all the secrets and tricks, so you can learn to produce and compose music in no time!

We make music theory interesting, enjoyable and practical! Just days from now, you will be able to read and write music accurately and have your library of scales, chords and progressions that you can use in your songs!

About the author: Martin has been teaching and developing Music courses in Music theory and instrumental technic for the past decade. His passion for teaching now goes beyond the classroom. He studied in the Music Conservatory of Music Lopez Buchardo (Argentina) and, funny to say, used to hate Music theory in his early years. Therefore he can truly empathize with his readers. He can read your mind, which, combined with his detailed knowledge of the subject, means you have a key book in your hands. Music Theory has never been put this easy!

why music theory?

Music theory is a discipline that defines and studies the elements that form Music, such as Harmony, Melody, Rhythm, Form and others. Understanding those features will not only help you write Music and interpret what you hear and read, but it will also work as a boost of inspiration to create and develop music once you understand its theory. As Jeff Titon (2016)* said: we make Music in two different ways; physically, when we produce it by singing or pressing the keys on a piano, we also make Music with our minds, analyzing, evaluating, generating and developing musical ideas.
This book’s pages will explore the fundamentals of harmony, melody and rhythm In addition, we will identify elements such as scales, key signatures, intervals, chords, progressions, motifs and devices to modulate and create and develop extended musical pieces.
After reading this book and completing the exercises I propose, you will understand:
  • How to assemble and organize multiple sounds to create Music
  • How to develop musical ideas
  • How to apply criteria to assess and refine technical and expressive aspects of Music

Music is a language, and you will benefit from developing a richer vocabulary In addition, it will help you sight read and perform more accurately, improvise freely and develop a holistic view of Music

how to use this book

knowing vs understanding

You will find many concepts, explanations, and examples throughout this book chapters. After reading these pages, you will know those concepts and might even memorize a few However, knowing something does not necessarily mean that we understand it.

But, how can you get to understand music theory? The answer is simple: Through practice To truly understand Music Theory, you need to read music, write and listen music and create.

I am inviting you to use and practice what you read here page by page. Whenever you encounter a new concept, interval, scale, chord progression or devise for modulation, go to your instrument or daw and play it and write it down. Then listen, compare, analyse and evaluate what you hear. At the end of each chapter, you will find practice exercises. Engage with those to further support your learning and most important of all:
Make a lot of music :)

PDF Music and Digital Media: A Planetary Anthropology

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The first comparative ethnographic study on the impact of digital media on worldwide music.

Offering a radically new theoretical framework for understanding digital media through music, this volume redresses anthropology’s frequent oversight of music as a topic of study. By positioning music as an expansive subject for digital anthropology, Georgina Born demonstrates how the field can build interdisciplinary links to music and sound studies, digital media studies, and science and technology studies. Music and Digital Media includes five original ethnographies spanning pop, folk, and crossover musical genres throughout Kenya, Argentina, India, Canada, and the UK. A further three chapters engage experimentally with the platforms of music-making and distribution, presenting pioneering ethnographies of an extra-legal peer-to-peer site and the streaming platform Spotify, a series of prominent internet-mediated music genres, and the first ethnography of a global software package, the interactive music platform Max MSP.

Acknowledgements

The research reported in this book stems from a programme entitled ‘Music, Digitisation, Mediation: Towards Interdisciplinary Music Studies’ (or MusDig), funded by the European Research Council’s Advanced Grants scheme.1 The Principal Investigator was Georgina Born, and Geoff Baker, Alexandrine Boudreault-Fournier, Aditi Deo, Andrew J. Eisenberg, Christopher Haworth and Patrick Valiquet were supported for research by the grant. Kyle Devine joined as our administrator and fast became a highly valued research collaborator. Several then-graduate students – Blake Durham, Emily Payne, Joe Snape and Christabel Stirling – became closely allied with the programme, contributing in innumerable ways. Alex’s, Kyle’s, Chrissy’s and Emily’s work is not fully represented in this volume but their intellectual élan and participation were vital to our collective efforts. Particular thanks go to Blake, Joe, Christopher and Kyle for their enthusiasm, energy and patience in sustaining the research dialogues that fill some of these pages. Heartfelt thanks are due to all these friends and colleagues for their inestimable contributions.

Collectively, we want to acknowledge the immense contributions of our interlocutors across the nine ethnographies making up MusDig, who graciously shared their time, thoughts and insights, practices and projects with us – those hailing from, inter alia, Nairobi, Buenos Aires, Bikaner, Tejgadh, Delhi, Havana, Berkeley, Tokyo, Montreal, Belfast, Leicester, Huddersfield, Darmstadt, Graz and the virtual hangouts of ‘Jekyll’ (chapter 5). We offer our gratitude and recognise our debts to these interlocutors.

During the project we engaged in numerous benefit-sharing activities, attempting to contribute back to the people with whom we worked. They included holding local public workshops and conferences in the fieldwork sites, bringing interested parties together to discuss relevant topics from our work. Andrew J. Eisenberg organised with Mbugua wa Mungai and Kimani Njogu a conference in Nairobi integrating speakers from the humanities departments at Kenyatta University and stakeholders from the Kenyan music and media industries. In Delhi, Aditi Deo, Vebhuti Duggal and Ira Bhaskar organised a three-day conference, ‘The Music Box and Its Reverberations: Technology and Music in India’, at Jawaharlal Nehru University to build a community of thought and practice between fieldwork interlocutors and academics. In Buenos Aires, Geoff Baker organised a one-day conference on ‘Música y digitalización en Buenos Aires’ with local musicians, journalists, critics and other stakeholders to discuss pressing common concerns. In Montreal and the UK we held several events including one, organised by Will Straw at the McGill Institute for the Study of Canada, titled ‘Culture, Creativity and Urban Space’ where interested parties presented their work and began sustained dialogues. In Havana, Alex Boudreault-Fournier collaborated with Isnay Rodriguez Agramonte and the Laboratorio Nacional de Música Electroacústica on a substantial two-day conference at the National Museum of Fine Arts in which musician interlocutors, scholars, public intellectuals, lawyers and institutional partners together addressed cultural and intellectual property in relation to music and the arts – matters of urgent concern in Cuba. The project also employed research assistants locally and brought several musician interlocutors to the UK, supporting them in expanding their networks. We here affirm, again, our warm thanks for and recognition of their many contributions and help.

Andrew J. Eisenberg’s research benefitted from the assistance of Beatrice Nguthu, Mbugua wa Mungai, Amin Virani and the staff at Ketebul Music, notably Steve Kivutia and Patrick Ondiek. For their generosity with their time and thoughts, he especially thanks Lucas Bikedo, Timothy Boikwa, Jesse Bukindu, Viola Karuri, Robert Kamanzi, Paul Kelemba, Bill Odidi, Tabu Osusa and Harsita Waters.

Geoff Baker would like to express huge gratitude to all the people in Buenos Aires who collaborated with his research, but particular thanks to the three founders of ZZK Records – Grant Dull, Diego Bulacio and Guillermo Canale – and all the label’s artists, and also Patricio Smink.

Aditi Deo is immensely grateful to the archivists and musicians who generously gave their time to the research in India, but especially to Shubha Chaudhari, Gopal Singh Chouhan, and Naran and Vikesh Rathwa. Vebhuti Duggal played a crucial role as a research assistant for the project.

Blake Durham would like to thank the members of the Jekyll network as well as those Spotify users whose generosity with their time and insights were instrumental to his research; particular thanks are owed to KF (a pseudonym) and Murphy Fleenor.

Joe Snape would like to thank the following for their help: Dave Defilippo, Adrian Freed, Rama Gottfried, Jonathan Green, Satoshi Hattori, Rosa van Hensbergen, Holly Herndon, Matt Ingalls, Jeff Lubow, John MacCallum and the late David Wessel. His work (2012–14) was supported by the Mica and Ahmet Ertegun Graduate Scholarship Programme in the Humanities, University of Oxford.

Christopher Haworth would like to convey his gratitude for important dialogues with Sean Booth, Roc Jiménez de Cisneros, Russell Haswell, Florian Hecker, Alex McLean and the late Peter Rehberg. He acknowledges the additional support of a Cheney Fellowship at the University of Leeds (2016–17).

Georgina Born thanks the many people who contributed to her elements of the book as interlocutors of one or another kind. In particular, I (Georgina Born) am grateful to these colleagues for their generosity with time, conversation, advice and support: Frieda Abtan, Robert Adlington, Michael Alcorn, Aaron Cassidy, Rui Chaves, Marko Ciciliani, Michael Clarke, Eric Drott, Gerhard Eckel, Aaron Einbond, Simon Emmerson, Mark Fell, Adrian Freed, Owen Green, Lauren Hayes, David Hesmondhalgh, Andrew Hugill, Charles Kronengold, Leigh Landy, Cathy Lane, Liza Lim, Eric Lyon, Graham McKenzie, Matilde Meireles, Tom Mudd, Tony Myatt, Peter Nelson, Sally-Jane Norman, Gascia Ouzounian, Pedro Rebelo, John Richards, Chris Salter, Franziska Schroeder, Sha Xin Wei, Jonathan Sterne, Paul Théberge, Pierre Alexandre Tremblay, Simon Waters and Sean Williams. Inevitably, some of you may not agree with aspects of the analysis, and any errors of interpretation are entirely my own. Jonathan, Dave, Eric and Owen: special thanks for going above and beyond in collegiality, including giving invaluable feedback to members of the group and to me.

I would also like to express gratitude for several sources of hospitality and support. Drafts of chapters were written, discussed in classes and presented in lectures on visits to the Schulich School of Music, McGill University (2013–14); the Music Department at UC Berkeley as the Bloch Lecturer (2014); the Department of Musicology, Oslo University (2014–19); Hong Kong University (2018); Humanities/Critical Theory Emphasis, UC Irvine (2019); Aarhus University as guest professor in Musicology (2017) and Fellow of the Aarhus Institute for Advanced Studies (2018–19); and Princeton University as a Global Scholar (2021 on). Among those who made these visits possible and enjoyable are Lisa Barg, David Brackett, Jonathan Sterne and Will Straw (McGill); Ben Brinner, Daniel Fisher, Adrian Freed, Jocelyne Guilbault, Mary Ann Smart, Bonnie Wade and the late David Wessel (Berkeley); Anne Danielsen, Stan Hawkins, Alexander Refsum Jensenius, Hans Weisethaunet and the late Ståle Wikshåland (Oslo); Daniel Chua and José Vicente Neglia (Hong Kong); and Julia Reinhard Lupton and Jim Steintrager (Irvine). Aarhus and AIAS demand particular recognition for providing such a stimulating interdisciplinary environment: my thanks to Mads Krogh, Morten Kyndrup, Steen K. Neilsen, Anne Marie Pahuus, the AIAS staff and my friends Christina Kkona and Adeline Masquelier. My colleagues and students at the Faculty of Music, Oxford University were wonderfully supportive over the years of incubation of the book: my warm thanks to Eric Clarke, Jonathan Cross, Samantha Dieckmann, Peter Franklin, Daniel Grimley, Tom Hodgson, Gascia Ouzounian and Jason Stanyek for collaborations and conversations. For their inspiring company as co-learners I thank Pablo Infante Amate, Anton Blackburn, Alice Kelly, Jaana Serres and Anna Thomas. On a personal level, especially warm thanks to Christabel, Joe, Christopher, Kyle, Blake, Pablo and Anton, who have been there for me (as I’ve tried to be there for them), responding with insight, well-founded criticism, humour and friendship: your intellectual company makes a huge difference. As always, Andrew Barry, Theo and Clara Barry Born have been my source of strength and love, not least during the pandemic. Andy, there are simply no words.

Additional warm thanks to the JRMA editor, Freya Jarman, for help and advice, to Anton Blackburn for heroic efforts in bringing this manuscript together in the late stages, and to Johanna Bates, Josh Rutner, Max Wainwright and the team at UCL Press – Chris Penfold and Grace Patmore – as well as Mark Broad, Leonora Dawson-Bowling and Linda Mellor, for their care and support in making the book happen.

Patrick Valiquet’s chapter, ‘Remediating modernism: on the digital ends of Montreal’s electroacoustic tradition’, is republished from the Journal of the Royal Musical Association, 144(1): 157–89 (2019), copyright © 2019 The Royal Musical Association, with the permission of Cambridge University Press & Assessment. Although great care has been taken in compiling the contents of this material, Cambridge University Press & Assessment nor their servants are responsible or liable in any way for the currency of the information, for any errors, omissions, or inaccuracies, or for any consequences arising therefrom. Cambridge University Press & Assessment does not endorse any commercial enterprise.

A Century of Composition by Women: Music Against the Odds

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This book presents accounts of creative processes and contextual issues of current-day and early-twentieth-century women composers. This collection of essays balances narratives of struggle, artistic prowess, and of “breaking through” the obstacles in the profession.

Part I: Creative Work – Then and Now illuminates historical and present-day women’s composition and various iterations and conceptions of the “feminine voice”; Part II: The State of the Industry in the Present Day provides solutions from the frontline to sector inequities; and Part III: Creating; Collaborating: Composer and Performer Reflections offers personal stories of current creation in music.

A Century of Composition by Women: Music Against the Odds draws together topical issues in feminist musicology over the past century. This volume provides insight into the professional and compositional procedures of creative women in music and stands to be relevant for composers, performers, industry professionals, students, and feminist and musicological scholars for many years to come.

Dr Linda Kouvaras, musicologist, composer and pianist, is Professor of Music at the Melbourne Conservatorium of Music, University of Melbourne, with full artist APRA-AMCOS representation. Her research interests centre on gender issues in music and musical post/modernism (particularly Australian composition), and she is a piano examiner for the Australian Music Examinations Board.

Dr Maria Grenfell is a composer and academic living in Hobart, Tasmania. An Associate Professor at the University of Tasmania, she is widely commissioned by orchestras and chamber ensembles in Australia, New Zealand, and internationally, and has served on the Board of Directors of the Tasmanian Symphony Orchestra.

Dr Natalie Williams is a composer, academic and artistic manager. Her music has been commissioned and performed in Australia, the United States and Europe. A performing arts leader, she has worked as an academic dean and also held faculty positions in music theory and composition at the University of Georgia and the Australian National University.

Foreword

This remarkable volume captures a wide diversity of music-making practice by women in the western world through the last one hundred years. It documents and explores many challenges to success that have been faced, the ways in which some of those challenges have been overcome and many of the issues that remain. It also goes some way to identifying the lasting impact that many women’s music has had upon cultural identity, impact that has been frequently underestimated in existing literature.

We hear here the voices of composing women from particular times and places, and the voices of women writing in today’s sociocultural situations. Reading these accounts, we may be impressed by extraordinary individuals, heartened by positive shifts towards a more egalitarian world, frustrated by the incremental pace of those shifts, and also confronted by cold industry realities of then and now. Presented with hard statistics that dem- onstrate in no uncertain terms that the gender gap has persisted even though in some areas it has reduced a little, we may also learn much from those who have found ways to make space and recognition for women’s music.

This collection includes writing about a range of musical creative outputs, from overtly “female” to those activities that are not specifically gendered yet which are typically seen through a male-dominated lens. We are reminded that femininity is not the “negative” or “opposite” of masculinity, and it remains clear that the recent and important increase of dialogue in regard to prejudice against non-binary and trans artists does not reduce the necessity for ongoing feminist debate; in fact, the opposite is true.

In addressing gender disparity, it is heartening to read of the real benefits that come from the simple act of asking people to consider gender issues. Becoming aware of our unconscious biases, rather than pretending we don’t have them, helps us to embrace a more diverse artistic world. These writings encourage us to strive to change our world, so that it no longer forces women to omit their first names in order to gain access to opportunities. We could all gain more if our musical “meritocracy” encouraged relational connections and a celebration of difference rather than rewarding blind ambition; the latter, sooner or later, causes distress to all.

Here we are presented with tales of women who achieved a great deal, yet whose output was all too often unsung or bypassed. Whether their music was largely confined to the domestic (not that there is anything wrong with a domestic focus if that is chosen), whether the few widely recognised women composers were treated as exceptions and therefore set up to be discounted, or whether the involvement of a male in a collaborative project automatically detracted from female contributions, we can read here just some of the many ways in which long shadows have been cast across women’s musical successes.

In 2019, after 97 years of male leadership of the International Society for Contemporary Music (ISCM), I found myself elected first female President of the ISCM, having also been the first female Vice-President (elected at the same time the organisation gained its first female Secretary General). That it took so long for the pattern of male leadership to be broken is simply shocking. Yet there was a lot of male-dominated history to address. Looking back to the ISCM festival of my birth year (1960), I see a ten-day programme featuring music written by 40 men and one woman. The festival organising committee (based in Köln) involved 18 men and no women. Of the 24 national sections, 2 (Poland and Norway) had female presidents. I am happy to report that gender disparity in represented composers has been far less in recent ISCM festivals; most notably, the 2017 festival in Vancouver set out to achieve gender parity and very nearly achieved it. Furthermore, as the society has become more truly international, we are not just exploring gender norms in western society but across many more cultural bases.

In seeking to understand how gender disparities arise, let us not forget that by far the majority of human individuals experience relationship with the maternal as primary, and our relationship with our fathers is generally quite different. This simple fact underpins and to some extent explains—but does in no way excuse—fundamental differences in our apprehension of the feminine in comparison to the masculine.
Overcoming that takes effort and self-awareness, and a breadth of understanding to which this volume contributes much.

In A Century of Composition by Women: Music Against the Odds, we hear the voices of the women who are creators, scholarly commentators, performers, activists, mentors and leaders. Listening to them will transform us all.

Auckland, New Zealand Glenda Keam

PDF Paul Weller and Popular Music Identity, Idiolect and Image

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Using research, analysis and a range of historical sources, Paul Weller and Popular Musicimmerses the reader in the excitement of Paul Weller’s unique creative journey, covering topics such as the artist’s position within his field; his creative processes; the contexts in which the music was made; the artist as collaborator; signifiers that mark the trajectory of the music; and formative influences. Focusing on over 40 years of recorded work from ‘In the City’ to ‘Fat Pop (Volume One)’, this study explores why Paul Weller's music is widely considered both timeless and of its time, and with reference to a wide range of interviews, reviews and texts, it offers an in-depth critical analysis of Paul Weller’s music. It will be of particular interest to scholars and researchers of popular music, popular culture, performance studies and music production.

Andrew West is a Professor and Head of Postgraduate Studies at Leeds Conservatoire, UK.

Introduction

A singular, evolutionary voice who embodies influence and individuality, since 1977 Paul Weller has moved with and against the times, frequently inspiring and confounding his audiences. In retrospect, the musician and the music are frequently considered both timeless and of their time. As musicologist Stan Hawkins writes, Weller is ‘a figure of our age, post-modern and confrontational, he is a veteran of sophistry who makes everything he performs a novelty’ (2009: 188). The son of Ann, a part-time cleaner, and John, a taxi driver and builder, Paul was born in Sheerwater, a suburb of the Borough of Woking in 1958. Married twice, firstly to Dee C. Lee and currently to Hannah Andrews, Weller is father to eight children by three separate partners.

Paul was bought a guitar by his parents in his early teens and, from the outset, his father John took on the role of managing his career. Like two of his avowed heroes Ray Davies and John Lennon, much preferring the fantastic to the formal, Paul’s teenage years were characterised by uneven moods and problems at school. A self-taught musician, or autodidact, Weller formed his first band, The Jam, in 1972. The Jam served a lengthy apprenticeship, playing at pubs and clubs in their local area, and following the punk boom, Weller, bassist Bruce Foxton and drummer Rick Buckler were signed to a recording contract by the London-based record label Polydor in 1977.

As Spicer notes ‘for many artists (The Beatles being probably the most obvious example) it is impossible to categorise them within the boundaries of one particular style; indeed, stylistic eclecticism becomes the defining feature of their music’ (2010: 124). Over the past six decades, Paul Weller’s words and music have sustained a sense of constant adventure, traversing so many textural iterations that it is impossible to classify him as anything other than a popular music artist. On the achievement of Marcel Proust’s ‘Remembrance of Things Past’, Conrad writes of how Proust was able to convey the notion of a prismatic identity (1998: 66). A stylistic shapeshifter, Weller has acquired a multi-faceted persona.

Particularly in the United Kingdom, but also to lesser degrees in Japan, Europe and America, his music has brought him great success and fame. In his sleeve notes for Weller’s 2010 release ‘Wake Up the Nation’, the novelist and playwright Irvine Welsh writes that Weller is ‘probably the solitary artist from this era to indisputably move into the pantheon of British rock n’ roll greats, encompassing Jagger, Richards, Lennon, McCartney, Townshend and Davies, his sixties antecedents, and Bowie, who emerged earlier in the seventies’. Indebted to numerous influences yet immediately identifiable, he is, as his friend and occasional collaborator Robert Wyatt describes him, ‘new furniture seasoned from old wood’ (Ingham, 1998: 39). In a 2016 inter- view with Barry Cain, Weller describes his childhood:

When we lived in Stanley Road, we had no hot water, no bathroom and no central heating, just a coal fire and an outside toilet.... It was a tin bath in front of the fire on a Sunday night.... With everyone bathing in the same water. It was grey by the time I got in but we didn’t give it a second thought because that’s the way it was. When people started moving out of the slums into decent council estates, the world changed. People became more aspirational.... Working class people would compensate for having nothing by trying to dress up to the nines when we went out.
(2016: 434)


Speaking in the mid-nineties, Weller describes the predominantly suburban town of Woking as ‘the area where I used to play as a kid, the woods around there, the rural side’ (Heatley, 1996: 7). In a posthumous thesis, the socio-cultural theorist Lev Vygotsky discusses the significance of childhood experience in facilitating our ability to adapt to what is around us as adults, writing ‘When I recall the house where I spent my childhood or the distant lands I have visited in the past, I retrieve impressions that I formed early in my childhood ... my actions do not create anything new, but rather are based on a more or less accurate repetition of something that already exists’ (2004: 8). In Weller’s music over the years, the bucolic aspects of his childhood environment have similarly facilitated a profoundly deep capacity for using memory to fire exploration.

Occupying a rarefied commercial level with contemporaries Madness and The Police, between 1979 and 1982 The Jam regularly made records that sold over 100,000 copies in the United Kingdom alone.
Despite this success, increasingly agitated with fame, Weller’s accounts of his time in The Jam portray a steadily increasing lack of fulfilment. Writing in the NME in 1978, journalist John Hamblett describes Weller as ‘Chain-smoking, introspective, anxious to communicate.... Charged with something less tangible than physical energy’ (1978: 31). As The Jam became more successful, the expectations placed by critics and audiences on Weller’s de facto role as ‘spokesman for a generation’ (Hawkins, 2009: 187) ultimately created what Weller later described as a conveyor belt he ‘needed to jump off’ (Cain, 2016: 422). Weller’s decision to split the band in 1982 was, however, widely unantici- pated. Not drawn to nostalgia, Weller has no wish to reform The Jam, reasoning ‘I don’t want to do the same things in life. I don’t want to play the same sort of music all the time. I want to change, I need to change and find something different along the way’ (Heatley, 1996: 95).

Among their followers, The Jam left a lasting legacy. In the 2015 film ‘About the Young Idea’ the consensus held by guest narrators including actor Martin Freeman, is that The Jam had a profound influence, not only on their musical tastes but also on their attitudes towards life. In a typical testimony, Freeman says ‘I know every inch of those records, I know every lyric of those records, I know every beat. It is a huge part of who I am’. The following year Weller reflected ‘When I speak to old Jam fans from that time, I get to the feeling it meant so much more to them than just a good record; there was a true cultural connection.... We caught the mood of the times, I guess, the zeitgeist or whatever you want to call it’ (Cain, 2016: 420). Snowball and Deabill’s vivid, democratic account forefronts the fans, who variously explain how ‘The Jam certainly helped to create a social, political and psychological foundation.... They were that one special band in mine and a generation’s psyche.... They gave me the strength, belief and confidence to feel like I was somebody’ (2012: 109, 125, 128). During a social period in the United Kingdom defined by cold war neurosis, domestic poverty and unrest, The Jam sought to turn a desolate mood into a positive one, channelling the hopes of disaffected youths whose outlook appeared bleak.

Initially comprising just Weller and keyboardist Mick Talbot, and marking a significant change of musical and aesthetic direction, The Style Council was formed in early 1983. The first Style Council live appearance, a benefit for CND, was characterised by mud throwing, problems with backstage security and heckling by angry Jam fans. Early recordings were well received, however, and in the Christmas edition of the New Musical Express, Weller declared the year his ‘favourite year for years.... I was sick of being judged constantly by everyone.... I have exorcised most of my demons and I am happier for that’ (NME, 1983: 27). Noting the intuitive way in which Weller assembled his live band, Ian Munn’s book ‘Mr. Cool’s Dream’ chronicles how bass guitarist Anthony Harty ‘got the gig by writing to Paul’ and how singer Dee C Lee had never heard of The Jam or Weller when she joined. As drummer Steve White, recruited at age 17 reflects: ‘I think it was a really inspired move to bring in musicians that were largely unaware of his past because we weren’t intimidated’ (Munn, 2016: 15, 26, 48–49, 71).

PDF Spatial Sound: Principles and Applications

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Spatial sound is an enhanced and immersive set of audio techniques which provides sound in three-dimensional virtual space. This comprehensive handbook sets out the basic principles and methods with a representative group of applications: sound field and spatial hearing; principles and analytic methods of various spatial sound systems, including two-channel stereophonic sound, and multichannel horizontal and spatial surround sound; Ambisonics; wavefield synthesis; binaural playback and virtual auditory display; recording and synthesis, and storage and transmission of spatial sound signals; and objective and subjective evaluation. Applications range from cinemas to small mobile devices.
  • The only book to review spatial sound principles and applications extensively
  • Covers the whole field of spatial sound
The book suits researchers, graduate students, and specialist engineers in acoustics, audio, and signal processing.

Bosun Xie was born in Guangzhou, China, in 1960. He received a Bachelor’s degree in physics and a Master of Science degree in acoustics from the South China University of Technology in 1982 and 1987, respectively. In 1998, he received a Doctor of Science degree in acoustics from Tongji University.

Since 1982, he has been working at the South China University of Technology and is currently the director and a professor at Acoustic Lab., School of Physics and Optoelectronics. He is also a member of the State Key Lab of Subtropical Building Science. His research interests include binaural hearing, spatial sound, acoustic signal processing, room acoustics, the relation between modern physics and classical acoustics. He has published a book entitled “Head-related transfer function and virtual auditory display” and over 300 scientific papers. He owns 20 patents in audio fields. His personal interest is in classical music, particularly classical opera.

He is the vice-president of the Acoustical Society of China (2014–2022), a member of the Audio Engineering Society (AES), and a member of the Acoustical Society of America (ASA).

Preface

In addition to vision, hearing is a means for humans to acquire external information. Human hearing can perceive not only the loudness, pitch, and timbre of sound but also the spatial attributes of sound. With spatial auditory perception, we can localize a sound source and create spatial auditory sensations of the environment.

Spatial sound or spatial audio aims to record (or simulate), transmit (or store), reproduce the spatial information of a sound field, and recreate the desired spatial auditory events or perceptions. Spatial sound is traditionally applicable to cinema and domestic sound reproductions. Recently, spatial sounds have been increasingly applied to wide fields of scientific research and engineering, such as psychoacoustic and physiological acoustic experiments, room acoustic designs, communication, computers and the internet, multimedia, and virtual reality.

Spatial sound has a long history dating back to more than 100 years ago. Since the 1930s, spatial sound techniques have been developed and used for practical application through the combination of acoustics and electronics. Since the 1990s, computer and digital signal processing techniques have further enabled spatial sound to develop quickly. There have been numerous scientific and technical studies on spatial sound. Various spatial sound techniques based on different physical and auditory principles have developed, and some of these tech- niques have been widely used.

In China, research on spatial sound began in 1958. Especially, the group at the South China University of Technology has conducted a series of fundamental and application studies on this field. Since 2010, spatial sound has gradually received attention in China, and some other groups have conducted relevant work.

From the point of scientific research, spatial sound is an interdiscipline dealing with acoustics (physics), psychology, and physiology of hearing, electronics and signal processing, computers, and even the art of music. Physical and auditory analysis of a sound field is the foundation of spatial sound. Signal processing, electronics, electroacoustic devices, and instruments are technical means for implementing spatial sound. With wide applications, spatial sound has been an active field in audio and signal processing and is still developing quickly. The development of spatial sound deals with both fundamental and application studies.

Internationally, special topics on spatial sound have been covered in some books, such as Spatial Hearing by Prof. Blauert (1997), Analytic Methods of Sound Field Synthesis by Dr. Jens Ahrens (2012), Ambisonics by Dr. Franz Zotter and Matthias Frank (2019), Sound Visualization and Manipulation by Profs. Yang-Hann Kim and Jung-Woo Choi (2013), and 3D Sound for Virtual Reality and Multimedia by Dr. Duran R. Begault (1994). The author of the present book previously wrote a book entitled Head-related Transfer Function and Virtual Auditory Display (Chinese edition in 2008 and English edition in 2013). However, books that cover relatively complete topics on spatial sound are rare. The only book is Spatial Audio by Prof.Francis Rumsey (2001), which is one of the series books intended to support college and university courses in music technology, sound recording, multimedia, and their related fields. In fact, writing a book that covers most aspects of the principle and applications of spatial sound is difficult because of the long history, extensive contents, and quick development in this field.

Prof. Xinfu Xie at the South China University of Technology wrote a book entitled The Principle of Stereo Sound in 1981. It reviewed and summarized the main international works on spatial sound before the end of the 1970s and contributed to the development of spatial sound in China. However, the book by Prof. XinfuXie was a Chinese edition and published in more than 40 years ago. During the past 40 years, especially since 1990, spatial sound has been developed greatly. Current spatial sound techniques differ considerably from those in 1970 in many aspects of basic physical, auditory principles, and technical means. Therefore, a book on the principles and applications of spatial sound should be rewritten.

The present book systematically states the basic principles and applications of spatial sound and reviews the latest development, especially those from the author’s research group. The book focuses on the physical and auditory principles of spatial sound. Another major purpose of the present book is to reveal that various spatial sound techniques are unified under the theoretical framework of spatial function sampling, interpolation, and reconstruction. The original Chinese edition was published by the Science Press (Beijing) in 2019. The present English edition is formed mainly from the Chinese edition with amendments, including the most recent developments from 2019 to 2021.

The book consists of 16 chapters, covering the main issues in the research of spatial sound. Chapter 1 presents the essential principles and concepts of sound field, spatial hearing, and sound reproduction to provide readers with sufficient background information for elaborating the succeeding chapters. Chapter 2 describes the basic principles and some issues related to the applications of two-channel stereophonic sound. Chapters 3–6 discusses the basic principles and traditional analysis of various multichannel horizontal and spatial surround sounds in detail. Chapter 7 presents the methods of microphone and signal simulation techniques for multichannel sounds. Chapter 8 discusses the matrix surround sound and down-mixing/upmixing of multichannel sound signals. Chapters 9 and 10 address the principles and methods of physical sound field analysis and reconstruction and discuss the principles of Ambisonics and wave field synthesis in detail. Chapter 11 describes the principle and method of binaural reproduction and virtual auditory display. Chapter 12 presents the method of binaural pressures and auditory model analysis of spatial sound reproduction. Chapters 13–15 discuss some issues related to the application of spatial sounds, including signal storage and transmission, acoustic conditions, requirements and methods for subjective assess- ment and monitoring. Chapter 16 outlines some representative applications of spatial sound. In addition, two appendices briefly introduce some mathematical tools for the analysis in the main text. The present book lists more than 1000 references at the end, representing the main body of literature in this field.

The present book intends to provide the necessary knowledge and latest results to researchers, graduate students, and engineers who work in the field of spatial sound. Readers can become familiar with the frontier of the field after reading and undertake the corresponding scientific research or technical development work. Because this field is interdisciplinary, reading this book needs some prior understanding of acoustics and signal processing. The References section provides relevant references about previous studies.

The publication of the present book is supported by the National Nature Science Fund of China (12174118) and the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2018YFB1403800). The relevant studies on spatial sound by the author and our group have been supported by a series of grants from the National Nature Science Fund of China (11674105, 19974012, 10374031, 10774049, 11174087, 50938003, 11004064, 11474103, 11574090, and 11104082), the Ministry of Education of China for outstanding young teachers, Guangzhou Science and Technology plan projects (98-J-010-01, 2011DH014, and 2014- Y2-00021), the State Key Lab of Subtropical Building Science, South China University of Technology., South China University of Technology, where the author works, has also provided enormous supports.

With more than 20 years of research experience, Prof. Shanqun Guan, working at the Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, has generously provided many guidance and suggestions. The author has also received long-term help and support from Prof. Zuomin Wang, the author’s PhD advisor, at Tongji University since the mid-1990s.

The author is especially indebted to Profs. Guangzhen Yu, Xiaoli Zhong, Zhiwen Xie, and Drs. Dan Rao and Qinglin Meng at the South China University of Technology, Dr. Chengyun Zhang at Guangzhou University, and all graduate students who provided support and coop- eration. The author also expresses gratitude to Prof. Guangzheng Yu for preparing all figures, Dr. Qinglin Meng for revising the English translation, and PhD students, namely, Haiming Mai, Jianliang Jiang, Kailin Yi, Lulu Liu, Tong Zhao, Jun Zhu, Wenjie Ding, and Shanwen Du, for their help in checking the references and proof of the book.

Many colleagues also provided the author with various kinds of support and help during the author’s research work, particularly Prof. Jens Blauert at Ruhr-University Bochum; Prof. Ning Xiang at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Profs. Shuoxian Wu and Yuezhe Zhao at the School of Architecture, South China University of Technology; Profs. Jian Zhong, Hao Shen, Mingkun Cheng, Jun Yang, Xiaodong Li, Yonghong Yan, and Junfeng Li at the Institute of Acoustics at the China Academy of Sciences; Profs. Jianchun Cheng, Boling Xu, Xiaojun Qiu, Yong Shen, Xiaojun Liu, and Jin Lu at Nanjing University; Prof. Dongxing Mao and Dr. Wuzhou Yu at Tongji University; Prof. Changcai Long at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology; Prof. Dean Ta at Fudan University; Prof. Hairong Zheng at the Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy Science; Profs. Baoyuan Fan and Jingang Yang, Senior Engineers Jincai Wu and Houqiong Zhong at The Third Research Institute of China Electronics Technology Group Company and Senior Engineer Jinyuan Yu at Guoguang Electric Co., Ltd.; Senior Engineer Jiakun Qi at Wuhan Wireless Power Plant Co., Ltd.; and Mr. Heng Wang at Guangzhou DSPPA Audio Co., Ltd. The CRC Press, especially Mr. Tony Moore, Frazer Merritt, Aimee Wragg, Vasudevan Thivya and Anya Hastwell made enormous work on the publication of the present book.

The author would like to thank the abovementioned units and individuals.

The author’s parents, Profs. Xingfu Xie and Shujuan Liang, were also acoustical researchers, who cultivated the author’s enthusiasm for acoustics. The author’s mother also gave great support during the preparation of the present book in 2009. The present book is in memory of the author’s parents who have since passed away.

PDF The Pathetick Musician: Moving an Audience in the Age of Eloquence

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What is rhetorical music? In The Pathetick Musician, Bruce Haynes and Geoffrey Burgess illustrate the vital place of rhetoric and eloquent expression in the creation and performance of Baroque music. Through engaging explorations of the cantatas of J.S. Bach, the authors explode the conventional notion of historical authenticity in music, proposing adventurous new directions to reinvigorate the performance of early music in the modern setting. Along the way, Haynes and Burgess investigate intersections between music and oratory, dance, gesture, poetry, painting and sculpture, and offer insights into figural elaboration, articulation, nuance and temporality. Aimed primarily at performers of Baroque music, the book situates the study of performance practice in a broader cultural context, and as much as an invaluable resource for advanced study, it contains a wealth of information that pertains directly to anyone working in the field of early music.

Based on a draft sketched by celebrated Baroque oboist and early music scholar Bruce Haynes before his death in 2011, The Pathetick Musician is the fruit of the combined wisdom of two musicians renowned equally for their contributions as performers and scholars. Drawing on an impressive array of Classical treatises on oratory, musical autographs and performance accounts, it is an essential companion to Haynes' controversial The End of Early Music. Geoffrey Burgess has taken up the broader claims of Haynes' philosophy to create a practical, accessible text that will be stimulating for all musicians interested in the rediscovery of early music. With copious musical examples, contemporaneous works of art, and a companion website with supplementary audio recordings, The Pathetick Musician is an invaluable resource for all interested in exploring new expressive possibilities in the performance and study of Baroque music.

PREFACE
Pipe Dreams
BRUCE HAYNES

I’ve just loaded my 9BC with Balkan Sasieni and lit up. What a pleasure! My first pipe since last week. Years ago I stopped bringing pipes with me on trips, since the likelihood of finding a place to smoke where I won’t disturb others was so small, and smoking stops being a pleasure if you worry that it may be giving someone else the opposite feeling. I’ve pretty much stopped smoking my pipe anywhere but in my studio. The last few years, I’ve found one of the medicines I take tends to cause drowsiness, but smoking a pipe counteracts it, so I’m actually smoking more than I used to. In fact, I wouldn’t have been able to have written what I have over the last years without my pipes.

The pipe is said to draw wisdom from the lips of philosophers, and stifle the voices of fools. I hope that works for me, whichever category I’m in! I’m in good company, because Sebastian Bach was a pipe smoker, too, and even left us with an aria called “Erbauliche Gedanken eines Tobackrauchers.” (Edifying Thoughts of a Tobacco Smoker) with a delightfully philosophical text on the inspirational aspects of smoking.

This book began as my attempt to sort out for myself the issues of expression and the passions in Baroque performance. My premise has been that we have been so concerned by the mechanics of music production that we have lost touch the spirit, the real music, the musicking.

Music and emotion are associated in most, perhaps all, human cultural activities with the theory of the passions, which as foreign as it may seem to us today, was a forebear for our modern psychology. My hope with this book is to confirm and reinforce our growing appreciation for the emotional side of music before the Romantic revolution. It’s difficult to isolate emotion as expressed and experienced in art from one’s life in general, but since I have begun to think of music as rhetoric, as I read more about these topics, and as it becomes evident that the music was originally conceived for the primary purpose of evoking emotion, I find myself gradually becoming more affected by what I hear. This is something I am glad to share with anyone who reads this, and it is also what makes it worth writing.

The notion that music is primarily emotional communication may seem, at first, like a small element in the craft of being a musician. Perhaps it is self-evident, but when I think of my own experience playing music from before 1800, I wish I had known from the outset what I know now. I was sometimes aware (even very conscious) of a piece’s emotion, but it never dawned on me that my job was to awaken that emotion in the hearts of my listeners. Nor did I know that virtually all the music I was performing was intended to convey passions. There were times when it would have made an overwhelming difference to me as a player to know that this music was never conceived to be merely beautiful and enchanting to listen to, but that it almost always had an ulterior motive: some kind of point to make. That would have affected my playing (quite literally!) because musicians who do not have that information (and most do not) inevitably tend toward the fast lane, or simply the efflorescence of beauty. It’s easy, you just put your fingers on the right keys at the right time, and the music plays itself ... or does it?

We are so used to beauty as an obligatory attribute of any artwork— something that needs to be consciously and deliberately expressed—that it’s difficult to imagine any other view. I catch myself sometimes describing a work of art as “beautiful” when what I really mean is that it has touched my heart. I’ve found enough substance in the idea of music as an expressive art that goes beyond “mere” beauty to fill a book, and to be worth devoting several satisfying years to its study. I hope, if you read on, you’ll see what I mean about the vital and fundamental effect this idea can have on contemporary music in general, and especially on modern performances of music from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, as well as new music written in that style.

PDF The Arithmetic of Listening: Tuning Theory and History for the Impractical Musician

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"Tuning is the secret lens through which the history of music falls into focus," says Kyle Gann. Yet in Western circles, no other musical issue is so ignored, so taken for granted, so shoved into the corners of musical discourse.

A classroom essential and an invaluable reference, The Arithmetic of Listening offers beginners the grounding in music theory necessary to find their own way into microtonality and the places it may take them. Moving from ancient Greece to the present, Kyle Gann delves into the infinite tunings available to any musician who feels straitjacketed by obedience to standardized Western European tuning. He introduces the concept of the harmonic series and demonstrates its relationship to equal-tempered and well-tempered tuning. He also explores recent experimental tuning models that exploit smaller intervals between pitches to create new sounds and harmonies.

Systematic and accessible, The Arithmetic of Listening provides a much-needed primer for the wide range of tuning systems that have informed Western music.

Acknowledgments

I must first of all thank Ben Johnston for, with an offhand comment (followed by four years of revelatory teaching), determining the subsequent direction of my life. Ben is a genius, a visionary, and his ten string quartets and many other just-intonation pieces have revealed more about what tuning can achieve than could have been rea- sonably expected from any one person in a lifetime. Second, for years, editors would ask me what book I was working on, and I would cheerily respond, “Well, I’ve got a microtonality textbook half finished,” just to enjoy the squeamish look on their faces as they changed the subject. Laurie Matheson was the first editor to reply, “Good, let’s do it.” She’s why you’re holding this book. Her faith in me has been gratifying. I roamed the world of academic publishing and finally found a home at the University of Illinois Press. Fittingly, Ben taught at the University of Illinois for thirty-two years (though I studied with him privately and was not enrolled there).

I thank my former student Lydia Spielberg, whose classics professors claimed that she knew ancient Greek better than they did and that her senior thesis could have been a doctoral dissertation. Her undergraduate paper on Ptolemy for my tuning class remains the clearest exposition I’ve been able to find on the subject. A few years later she is already doing postdocs and has gone on to what will doubtless be a stellar academic career. It was my great honor to have the manuscript read by microtonal experts John Schneider (a Partch performer and world’s leading expert on the microtonal guitar) and Andrew Granade (an important biographer of Partch), and I benefited from their every suggestion. I thank Kraig Grady, Juhani Nuorvala, Casey Hale, and Paul Erlich for providing materials on Regular Temperament Theory, particularly Paul, who patiently endured and answered many detailed technical questions. He taught me Regular Temperament Theory as he has taught so many others. Stephen Parris, director of Gamelan Encinal, provided me with important documents on gamelan
tuning. My Bard College colleague Maria Sonevytsky pulled me back from the brink of ethnomusicological faux pas, and our Baroque specialist, Alexander Bonus, found sources for me and knew exactly when to scoff. I hope I have not embarrassed either of them, nor any of my other benefactors, with further misconceptions. Most of all I thank my lovely wife, Nancy, for so uncomplainingly nurturing a decades-long obses- sion that began, after all, a few months after we married. She did not see this coming.

PDF Classical Jazz: Jazz Piano Solos Series Vol. 63

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(Jazz Piano Solos). Each volume in the Hal Leonard Jazz Piano Solos Series features exciting new arrangements of the songs which helped define a style. In this unique volume, 30 classical favorites are given entertaining new jazzy arrangements. Titles include: Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy, Op. 71a (Tchaikovsky) * In the Hall of the Mountain King (Grieg) * Meditation (Massenet) * Musetta's Waltz (Quando Men Vo) (Puccini) * Reverie (Debussy) * Salut D'amour (Greeting to Love) (Elgar) * Sandmannchen (The Little Sandman), WoO 31, No. 4 (Brahms) * The Swan (Le Cygne) (Saint-Saens) * Traumerei (Dreaming), Op. 15, No. 7 (Schumann) * and more.

PDF The Book I Wish I'd Had When I Was New To The Guitar

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This is the book that would have saved me countless hours of aggravation and frustration had it been available when I started playing the guitar over forty years ago. I was asked to teach a relative the rudiments of guitar, and as I was deciding what I should tell her, I began to think what I wished someone had told me. I have been honest about the mistakes I have made over the years in the hope you can avoid them, but the main bulk of this book is a detailed explanation of what chords and scales actually are, and how a high percentage of what you need to know is based on just five chord shapes and five scale shapes. This truly is THE BOOK I WISHED I'D HAD WHEN I WAS NEW TO THE GUITAR.

PDF Proceedings of the 9th Conference on Sound and Music Technology

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The book presents selected papers at the 9th Conference on Sound and Music Technology (CSMT) held virtually in June 2022, organized by Zhejiang University, China. CSMT is a multidisciplinary conference focusing on audio processing and understanding with bias on music and acoustic signals. The primary aim of the conference is to promote the collaboration between art society and technical society in China.

In this book, the paper included covers a wide range topic from speech, signal processing, music understanding, machine learning, and signal processing for advanced medical diagnosis and treatment applications, which demonstrates the target of CSMT merging arts and science research together. Its content caters to scholars, researchers, engineers, artists, and education practitioners not only from academia but also industry, who are interested in audio/acoustics analysis signal processing, music, sound, and artificial intelligence (AI).

Preface

After nine years of development, with the outstanding effort from the organisation committees, the Conference on Sound and Music Technology (CSMT) has become a leading conference in the area of computational audition in China, with a growing reputation among sound and music engineers, artists, researchers and scientists. The first event was held in Fudan University on 14 December 2013, with a slightly different name—China Conference on Sound and Music Computing Work- shop (CSMCW)—and with the proceedings published in Chinese. This event, CSMT 2021, the ninth in the series, is hosted by Zhejiang University and Zhejiang Conservatory of Music, based in Hangzhou, one of the most beautiful cities in China, with two World Cultural Heritage sites: the West Lake and the Grand Canal. The Conservatory is a fantastic place to host this exciting event, not only providing an excellent venue for the technical sessions, but also offering a great opportunity for engaging and educating the next generation of music artists, engineers and practitioners.

Since four years ago, an annual English co-proceeding is published by including selected English papers, along with the Chinese proceeding. This has clearly lifted its impact among international audience of sound and music technologies and improved its profile worldwide, which may prove crucial for its development into a long-lasting and marked event in the global stage in the area of computer audition, acoustic engineering and music technology.

This year saw overall 11 out of 19 English submissions accepted (57.89% accep- tance rate) and 21 out of 40 Chinese submissions (52.5%), hence featuring an overall acceptance rate of 54.24%. This demonstrates the high standard set by CSMT organisation committee and the competitive process in selecting high-quality papers. The accepted papers cover a range of topics, including music instrument recognition, automatic piano transcription, music source separation, design of blowing instrument controller, sports music, singing voice separation and detection, music emotion recognition, audio tagging, multimodal scene classification, heart sound analysis, Chinese traditional instrument Pipa recording, classification of pathological speech, sound denoising, sound mixing and music generation. This shows the broad range of interest emerging from the community, the widespread impact on the scientific development in this area and the multidisciplinary nature of this field.

Nowadays, with the rapid development of artificial intelligence, the development of sound and music technology is also moving at a fast pace. The CSMT conference provides an excellent platform for facilitating the exchange of ideas among researchers and practitioners, stimulating interest from the participants and wide communities and nurturing novel ideas and technological advancement in this exciting area. It is envisaged that the publication of this edition helps expose the new development of this field in China to the international communities, bridge the communications between researchers in China and those from the world and add valuable materials to the reading list in the libraries worldwide.

Guildford, UK Wenwu Wang

Teach Yourself How To Play Guitar

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Instruments connected with the guitar have been in presence since ancient's times. Extending strings across a vibrating office of air, called a soundbox, traces back to ancient times, and is found in basically every culture on the planet. Utilizing frets to check the tones in a scale most likely comes from India where right up 'til the present time players of the vina and sitar tie bits of catgut across the fingerboards of their instruments to go about as frets. Early pilgrims from Spain and Portugal presumably carried the plan to Europe and the European pioneers carried guitars with them to America.

Guitars intently looking like the present classical style guitars were notable during the nineteenth century. They were especially famous among the less wealthy and versatile citizenry on account of their minimal expense and simple compactness.

The book "TEACH YOURSELF HOW TO PLAY GUITAR" illustrates the complete step-by-step guide on how to become a guitar pro player in no time!
This book is also the perfect introduction to the guitar, and ideal for the absolute beginner getting started with their first instrument!

With absolutely no musical knowledge required, this simple yet comprehensive guide is perfect for adults and children alike!
  • Simple concept to follow and practice
  • Easy to follow the instruction and illustrations in the book
  • Fun and easy songs, chords, and tunes to play
  • Teaches how to read and understand musical notes
  • Inculcate the type of guitar to buy and get the right tune
  • Learning at the comfort of your home
Simply follow the tips, instructions, and illustrations in the book and you'll be playing guitar like a pro in 14 days.

INTRODUCTION
Instruments connected with the guitar have been in presence since ancient's times. Extending strings across a vibrating office of air, called a soundbox, traces back to ancient times, and is found in basically every culture on the planet. Utilizing frets to check the tones in a scale most likely comes from India where right up 'til the present time players of the vina and sitar tie bits of catgut across the fingerboards of their instruments to go about as frets. Early pilgrims from Spain and Portugal presumably carried the plan to Europe and the European pioneers carried guitars with them to America.

Guitars intently looking like the present classical style guitars were notable during the nineteenth century. They were especially famous among the less wealthy and versatile citizenry on account of their minimal expense and simple compactness.

The book "TEACH YOURSELF HOW TO PLAY GUITAR" illustrates the complete step-by-step guide on how to become a guitar pro player in no time!

This book is also the perfect introduction to the guitar, and ideal for the absolute beginner getting started with their first instrument!

With absolutely no musical knowledge required, this simple yet comprehensive guide is perfect for adults and children alike!

Simple concept to follow and practice
Easy to follow the instruction and illustrations in the book
Fun and easy songs, chords, and tunes to play
Teaches how to read and understand musical notes
Inculcate the type of guitar to buy and get the right tune
Learning at the comfort of your home

Simply follow the tips, instructions, and illustrations in the book and you'll be playing guitar like a pro in 14 days.

Music Mnemonics for Keyboard and Piano, Book 1: Improve your sight-reading effortlessly

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Music Mnemonics is the fun and memorable way to get to grips with reading music. We use advanced learning methods to take all the hard work out of learning. Jam-packed with illustrations, this is suitable for young and old alike.

In no time at all, you’ll instantly know and recognise the notes on the page and the keys on the keyboard, meaning you’ll be able to play faster and better… even when sight-reading.

If you’ve been struggling to recognise the notes fast enough when reading music, then this is the book for you. No knowledge of music theory is required.

This book is a follow on to Music Mnemonics which should be read first to understand the system properly. This book then applies the mnemonics described in that book and applies them to the position on the piano keyboard.

Therefore users will not only be able to instantly recognise notes on the sheet music, but they will instantly know where on the piano keyboard any note is.

One of the best things about this method is your brain will learn effortlessly.

We understand half the trouble with playing music is recognising the notes on the sheet music and then the instrument fast enough for the brain to then be able to tell the fingers what to do. That’s why musician Paul Masterdon developed the mnemonics to get the notes deeply ingrained in their brain.

Unlike other systems (e.g. colour coded stickers on keys where the young pianist can get lost when the stickers are removed), your brain will never be dependent on the icons or colours. It will know the notes perfectly well without them as that knowledge will be stuck in the brain and not on the piano keyboard.

In addition to numerous mnemonics, there's some simple sheet music in this book.

Book 1 covers all the natural notes up to 8 ledger lines. Book 2 covers the sharps and flats.

Please note that this book takes what's been learned in Music Mnemonics and then applies it specifically to the keyboard and piano. Therefore, the former book should be read first to get the most from this method.

Alto Saxophone Mind Mapping: A Sax Fingering Chart How You Think

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This book is part of a much wider system that I have devised called Music Mnemonics. I recognise not everybody may need (or want) the complete system, which is why I have brought out this sax fingering chart separately as a standalone book, each page covering an individual note.

How this differs from other sax fingering charts is that it is designed the way the brain actually thinks: the right way around. Now you can see in your mind how YOU would play the notes, not see how someone else would play them when in front of you.

The issue with other sax charts is that they are not player-focused - they are audience-focused, depicting the fingerings the 'wrong' way around. A learner has to do mental gymnastics by translating and then reversing the pictures in their mind before 'seeing' the note on their instrument.

It's a long-winded way of going about things. Why go through all that pain when you don't have to? Learn as the brain thinks the first time around and then watch your playing go stratospheric as a result.

Contains the common alto sax fingerings from bottom B flat to past the high F sharp: this also covers the altissimo notes!

Arranged in the order of the chromatic scale.

Music Mnemonics for Tenor Saxophone Players: Rapid Sax Learning The Easy Way

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Welcome to Music Mnemonics, the fun and memorable way to get to grips with reading music and learning to play an instrument. We use advanced learning methods to take all the hard work out of learning.

In no time at all, you’ll instantly know and recognise the notes, meaning you’ll be able to play faster and better… even when sight-reading.

If you’ve been struggling to recognise the notes fast enough when reading music (or don't know how to read music at all), and/or struggle to remember the fingering for the different notes, then this is the book for you. No knowledge of music theory is required. This works for adults and kids alike.

You'll not only learn to instantly recognise notes on sheet music, but instantly know where on the tenor saxophone any note is. With dozens of bespoke mnemonic specific for the tenor sax, this system is revolutionary.

With this system, each note (A, B etc) is called its own name and assigned the colour to match its name e.g. Blue for B. A high B and a low B will have a different name. They will both be the same colour, but I've called the lowest B on the sax the 'Bones' note, and the highest, the 'Bee' note. The B in the middle that normally everyone starts out with is called the 'Boxer' note.

With each note name, I've given mnemonics to instantly recognise the note on the sheet music PLUS also the fingering patterns on your instrument. This goes for all the sharps and flat versions of the notes too. You will soon know these notes without even thinking. It will be instant recall: the stuff that normally takes many, many months of practise for a musician to achieve.

My sax fingering charts differ as they are designed the way the brain actually thinks: the right way around. Now you can see in your mind how YOU would play the notes. The issue with all other sax charts that I have seen is that they are not player-focused - they are audience-focused, depicting the fingerings the 'wrong' way around. A learner has to do mental gymnastics by translating and then reversing the pictures in their mind before 'seeing' the note on their instrument.

It's a long-winded way of going about things. Why go through all that pain when you don't have to? Learn as the brain thinks the first time around, while easily learning how to read music with my other fun mnemonics to further help embed this knowledge in your brain, and then watch your playing go stratospheric as a result. I know this system works for kids and adults alike. Enjoy it.

Renegade Snares: The Resistance And Resilience Of Drum & Bass

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Renegade Snares is the definitive book on drum & bass music. Pieced together using original interviews conducted with all the scene’s main players, it traces the history of jungle/drum & bass from its early roots in sound system culture and rave music right through to the present day.

With its hyper-speed breakbeats, warping bass pressure, and vast spectrum of sounds, drum & bass quick spawned a whole new movement in youth culture. What began as an outlaw street reverberation from the inner cities of Britain developed into a Mercury-winning, chart-topping, world-conquering genre in just a few short years. The frontier-breaking sorcery that emanated from its foundational producers and DJs pushed new levels of sonic science into the music world, and it has influenced all other electronic music genres in assorted ways.

From the shock of the new to a global phenomenon, drum & bass has morphed from frowned-upon marginalisation to establishment approval—and back again. A multicultural triumph, it is a story of resistance and resilience that takes in pioneers such as Goldie, Roni Size, Kemistry & Storm, Photek, Fabio & Grooverider, and many more renegade mavericks—even, at one point, David Bowie.

With vivid descriptions of key tracks and a detailed lineage of the scene’s development, Renegade Snares traces the genre’s gestation while also examining its musical twists and turns, worldwide spread, and enduring popularity. And, ultimately, it asks: surely a genre of music with such a significant grounding in black music culture, developed by so many black pioneers in its formative years, could never be ‘whitewashed’ . . . could it?

Intro

It’s July 2015. The buzz of the South Bank in London is a long way from the South Bronx in New York, where a quarter of a century previously, one Clifford Price was hanging with the TATS CRU of graffiti writers. Graffiti still adorns the skatepark underneath the concrete gables just along from the National Film Theatre, but Goldie’s work today is taking place in rather more salubrious surroundings: the prestigious Royal Festival Hall.

It’s the ultimate endgame for a style of music that Goldie played such a big part in shaping. In 1995, his Timeless album catapulted jungle/drum & bass into the mainstream, and Goldie with it. An aural masterwork that still stands up decades later, it’s now being revisited by Goldie in a new form.

We’re here for the second show of Goldie’s full orchestral interpretation of Timeless with The Heritage Orchestra. It’s the most powerful refutation imaginable for the haters who said drum & bass was too fast, ain’t gonna last. ‘Vindication,’ Goldie would call it later. Drum & bass has been derided and overlooked, written off and ridiculed, but has grown from underground roots to now be perceived as high culture. It never needed this kind of affirmation, but it’s still, finally, been embraced by the establishment. It’s in the Royal-fucking-Festival Hall. It’s transcended functionality.

Inside the venue, with its boxes up the walls straight out of a 70s sci-fi movie, there’s a breathless expectation about the crowd. Despite the odd junglism T-shirt, many don’t look like old ravers. It’s a mixture of theatregoers and classical concert fans, mingling with a fair share of headz.

There’s loads of kit onstage, and when The Heritage Orchestra emerge from the shadows, all wearing Timeless T-shirts with a twisted Metalheadz skull design on the front, clutching violins, cellos, and other instruments, they’re greeted warmly. Goldie stands nonchalantly at the side of the stage before emerging right on cue.

There aren’t many musicians in popular music who have the chutzpah to harness the immense power of a full orchestra and simultaneously rock the joint to its foundations like a sweaty rave. But Goldie is that man, and just one of the key players in the formation and evolution of modern music’s last completely new language. This live performance tonight is elegant, fierce, explosive, reflective; exquisitely organised chaos, the paradoxical balance that defines jungle.

The crowd are on their feet; the two drummers smack the skins for all they’re worth; the horn section conjures the vengeful spirit of darkcore rave synths. In the quieter moments, the musicality of Timeless unfurls through the massed string section. It’s a stunning spectacle, and, in the eye of the storm, Goldie vacillates between meditative reflection and crazed concert conductor, egging on the players to ever-greater feats. His faith in the power of drum & bass is infectious. And, today, the influence of that genre is the most powerful it’s been in many years.

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