Rethinking the Music Business

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Rethinking the Music Business - COVID-19 had a global impact on health, communities, and the economy.


COVID-19 had a global impact on health, communities, and the economy. As a result of COVID-19, music festivals, gigs, and events were canceled or postponed across the world. This directly affected the incomes and practices of many artists and the revenue for many entities in the music business. Despite this crisis, however, there are pre-existing trends in the music business – the rise of the streaming economy, technological change (virtual...

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Rethinking the Music Business

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COVID-19 had a global impact on health, communities, and the economy. As a result of COVID-19, music festivals, gigs, and events were canceled or postponed across the world. This directly affected the incomes and practices of many artists and the revenue for many entities in the music business. Despite this crisis, however, there are pre-existing trends in the music business – the rise of the streaming economy, technological change (virtual and augmented reality, blockchain, etc.), and new copyright legislation. Some of these trends were impacted by the COVID-19 crisis while others were not.

This book addresses these challenges and trends by following a two-pronged approach: the first part focuses on the impact of COVID-19 on the music business, and the second features general perspectives. Throughout both parts, case studies bring various themes to life. The contributors address issues within the music business before and during COVID-19. Using various critical approaches for studying the music business, this research-based book addresses key questions concerning music contexts, rights, data, and COVID-19. Rethinking the music business is a valuable study aid for undergraduate and postgraduate students in subjects including the music business, cultural economics, cultural management, creative and cultural industries studies, business and management studies, and media and communications.

Acknowledgments

We received a University of Melbourne School of Culture and Communication Publication Support Grant in 2021. This grant funded the copyediting of this book. Thanks to the University of Melbourne, and various administrative staff, for making such grants available. Thanks also to Kate Leeson for copyediting the book and for providing editorial suggestions.

We would also like to thank the other series editors of the Music Business Research book series—of which this contributed volume is a part—for accepting our original proposal: Dennis Collopy, Beate Flath, Sarita M. Stewart, and Carsten Winter.

Guy Morrow, Daniel Nordgård, Peter Tschmuck
May, 2022

Introduction

Abstract Inthischapter,weintroducethebookbyfirstoutliningthechallengesof designing, writing and editing a research-based book during the COVID-19 pandemic. We explain why Part 1 features six chapters that concern the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the music business, while Part 2 is comprised of six chapters that present original insights into the music business in general. We edited this book in solidarity with the various authors who managed to contribute chapters to this volume despite COVID-19-related disruptions and time out from work due to illness. We also edited this book in solidarity with all the participants who contributed to our own research projects that feature in this book and with the participants who took part in our contributing authors’ research projects. Our aim in this book was to provide as holistic a picture of the music business as we could at this time by gathering contributions from authors who were in the United Kingdom, Austria, Zimbabwe, Germany, India, Australia, Norway and the Philippines during the COVID-19 pandemic.

1.1 Book Design

In designing, writing and editing this book, we encountered several challenges. Of course, bringing together a diverse group of scholars and case studies to present a global perspective on the music business during the COVID-19 pandemic meant that several contributing authors and editors contracted COVID-19 during this time, and some of the team behind this book are still suffering from long COVID. The pandemic has made many things more challenging, including the creation of this book. Yet despite this, our contributing authors rose to the challenge, and we managed to submit this book to our publisher (roughly) on time. Likewise, much of the music business itself has stopped and started and adapted and evolved during this time, and it has been fascinating to see how innovation and creativity have been harnessed to regenerate and rethink the music business.

This juxtaposition between the catastrophe of the ongoing COVID-19 disaster and ‘business as usual’ also informed the design of this book. Indeed, another challenge we faced in compiling this book concerned how we could both consider some of the impacts of the COVID-19 crisis on the music business, as well as pre-existing trends in this business that were not directly impacted by this crisis, and research that was conducted prior to the pandemic. To provide as holistic a picture of the music business during this time as possible, we resolved to split the book evenly into two parts. Part 1 features six chapters that concern the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the music business, while Part 2 is comprised of six chapters that present original insights into the music business in general.

1.2 Outline of Part 1

It may be years before we can understand the true impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the music business—we are not able to zoom out far enough at this time as it still encircles and threatens to suffocate us. In Part 1, our contributing authors have only been able to zoom in to analyse some key issues. In Chap. 2, George Musgrave examines media representations of musicians’ mental health during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom (UK). The media narratives that emerged from these many representations are his specific concern, and Musgrave traces two primary ones. The first relates to employment anxiety and the loss of income, while the second concerns musicians’ loss of purpose and thus the existential anxiety faced by many musicians.

While Musgrave does not claim that musicians’ mental health concerns were worse than those of other members of British society during this time, he does argue that his work here is significant because the live music industry—and the music industries in general because the various sectors or industries are very interconnected—was one of the hardest hit by pandemic-related lockdowns. Live music venues were amongst the first to close and the last to open. Musgrave’s discussion of musicians’ eligibility, or lack thereof, for the Self-Employment Income Support Scheme in the UK leads him to consider the particularly poignant question of the economic viability of musicianship and whether, on average, musical work has ever been economically viable.

Continuing with a similar theme, in Chap. 3, Peter Tschmuck, Lukas Hirzberger, Armin Radlherr, Sandra Stini and Nils Wlömert examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on freelance classical musicians in Austria. They do this by working through the results of an online survey they conducted with 1777 participants. They found that the classical musicians who participated in their study suffered less than musicians in other music genres. They argue that this is because these musicians more often combine their freelance work as musicians with fixed- term work for orchestras and work teaching music than musicians who work in other music genres do.

While they claim that almost all musicians suffered pandemic-related income losses, and the points Musgrave makes in Chap. 2 about musicians’ mental health are no doubt also relevant to classical musicians, when they introduced gender into their analysis, Tschmuck et al. found that the pandemic has so far had a different impact on the income situation of women and men. At a first glance, it seems that female artists suffered less from the pandemic than male artists. In relative terms, however, they found that women often lost more than men, despite men having higher absolute income losses than women. Yet female classical musicians were better off than women working in popular music genres in Austria.

In Chap. 4, Paul G. Oliver and Stefan Lalchev examine digital transformation in the music industry and the question of how the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated new business opportunities. Using secondary data, they ‘map the territory’ to uncover new phenomena and identify emerging patterns of behaviour within the music business. They identify five key trends that illustrate how the COVID-19 pandemic has forced practitioners to ‘rethink’ the music business: the evolution of creators, the social audio platforms, the ‘metaverse’, blockchain and non-fungible tokens and the evolution of streaming. They argue that, even though digitisation had been changing the music business landscape for years prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, new trends that emerged within a period of less than 2 years because of the pandemic accelerated numerous new business opportunities. Overall, they con- clude that the pandemic created a ‘perfect storm’ for the music business, which, in turn, led to this business putting much of its resourcing and attention into the digital domain. Within only 2 years, the pandemic has been a catalyst for creative and innovative output that ordinarily might have taken a whole decade.

In Chap. 5, Victoria Blessing Butete uses social capital theory to examine the strategies three Zimbabwean female musicians used to manage their careers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Drawing on her doctoral research into the government’s role in Zimbabwe’s live music sector, Butete uses a case study approach and analyses data gathered through in-depth semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Her overarching finding is that the COVID-19 pandemic impacted the three Zimbabwean female musicians differently and in both positive and negative ways. She notes that, overall, the loss of live music performance opportunities had negative economic, social and cultural impacts. This forced her participants to regenerate their human capital by learning new skills. She argues that this learning process aug- mented their extant social capital and enhanced their proficiency by creating new COVID-19-friendly networks. She claims that her participants utilised their cognitive, bonding, bridging, linking, relational and structural forms of social capital to exploit and expand existing networks and that therefore social capital sustained the three Zimbabwean female musicians who participated in her study by allowing them access to economic, cultural and symbolic capital during the COVID-19 pandemic.

In Chap. 6, Niklas Blömeke, Jan Üblacker, Johannes Krause, Katharina Huseljić and Heiko Rühl explore the COVID-19 pandemic’s impact on live music venues in Germany. They ask the questions: How did COVID-19 and related measures to reduce contact impact live music venues in Germany? Was the cultural value or the social value of live music particularly affected and how? What are the likely longterm consequences for the live music sector? To answer these questions, Blömeke et al. conducted exploratory research during the northern summer of 2020. This included 14 semi-structured interviews with key actors in the live music sector (e.g. club owners, politicians, live music associations). Blömeke et al.’s findings indicate that music venues are confronted with an existential crisis that exceeds their economic pressures. This includes venues in Germany facing the loss of informal support networks within the sector and decreasing ties between artists, venues and audiences. Besides economic effects, they identified three areas of impact that the situation caused by COVID-19 had on cultural value. These are the obstruction of musical creativity and co-creation, general cultural lethargy and disruption of talent development. They also identified three areas of impact on social value: loss of communal experience, loss of voices in political discourse and decreased potential for identity formation. Blömeke et al.’s work here is significant as it highlights the importance of live music events as social spaces and the importance of venues to thelive music ecology.

Chapter 7 concludes Part 1 of the book. In this chapter, Sarah Raine, Haftor Medbøe and José Dias examine how four jazz festivals across the UK adapted their processes and practices to rethink jazz festivals during the COVID-19 pandemic. They explore themes such as pandemic-exposed fragilities, community resilience in the face of adversity and industry recovery. Raine et al. provide a fascinating ‘insiders’ perspective’ into the jazz scene during this time by using their own reflexive positionalities: each of them has built a scholarly career on a personal and pre-existing passion; two of them are also performing musicians, and one of them is the Director of the Board for the Edinburgh Jazz and Blues Festival. Their positioning as both scholars and musicians/participants makes this chapter particularly poignant; it was written in solidarity with their participants, participants who gave up their time to discuss a traumatic period in their lives to share their experi- ences and potential lessons with others. These lessons include understandings of the challenges and opportunities that arose through the shift to virtual live music experiences; the potential longevity of economic models developed during COVID-19; changing relationships with audiences, musicians and funders; and changes in the role of jazz festivals in society.

Musical Bodies, Musical Minds

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Musical Bodies, Musical Minds - Enactive Cognitive Science and the Meaning of Human Musicality


An enactive account of musicality that proposes new ways of thinking about musical experience, musical development in infancy, music and evolution, and more.

Musical Bodies, Musical Minds offers an innovative account of human musicality that draws on recent developments in embodied cognitive science. The authors explore musical cognition as a form of sense-making that unfolds across the embodied , environmentally embedded , and...

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Musical Bodies, Musical Minds

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An enactive account of musicality that proposes new ways of thinking about musical experience, musical development in infancy, music and evolution, and more.

Musical Bodies, Musical Minds offers an innovative account of human musicality that draws on recent developments in embodied cognitive science. The authors explore musical cognition as a form of sense-making that unfolds across the embodied , environmentally embedded , and sociomaterially extended dimensions that compose the enactment of human worlds of meaning. This perspective enables new ways of understanding musical experience, the development of musicality in infancy and childhood, music’s emergence in human evolution, and the nature of musical emotions, empathy, and creativity.

Developing their account, the authors link a diverse array of ideas from fields including neuroscience, theoretical biology, psychology, developmental studies, social cognition, and education. Drawing on these insights, they show how dynamic processes of adaptive body-brain-environment interactivity drive musical cognition across a range of contexts, extending it beyond the personal (inner) domain of musical agents and out into the material and social worlds they inhabit and influence. An enactive approach to musicality, they argue, can reveal important aspects of human being and knowing that are often lost or obscured in the modern technologically driven world.

Acknowledgments

The collection of ideas, arguments, and insights contained in Musical Bodies, Musical Minds is the result of almost a decade’s collaboration between its three authors. The book reflects our backgrounds as musical performers and music educators, as well as our interests as scholars. As such, Musical Bodies, Musical Minds develops a perspective on human musicality that integrates knowledge from across a range of domains, including the cognitive and biological sciences, developmental studies, pedagogical theory, affective science, philosophical traditions, various branches of music research, and more. In line with this, we hope that Musical Bodies, Musical Minds will contribute to the interdisciplinary orientation that characterizes current musicology and especially to scholarship that explores the “embodied” and “ecological” dimensions of musical perception, cognition, and practice. This research area has produced a number of inspiring books, including Eric Clarke’s Ways of Listening (2005), David Borgo’s Sync or Swarm (2005), Marc Leman’s Embodied Music Cognition (2007), Arnie Cox’s Music and Embodied Cognition (2016), Jonathan De Souza’s Music at Hand (2017), Simon Høff- ding’s A Phenomenology of Musical Absorption (2018), Mariuz Kozak’s Enacting Musical Time (2019), and Mark Reybrouck’s Musical Sense-Making (2020). These texts connect in various ways with the account we offer in Musical Bodies, Musical Minds. However, to our knowledge, Musical Bodies, Musical Minds is the first monograph fully dedicated to developing a comprehen- sive enactive/4E view of human musicality.

In addition to the authors just mentioned, we would also like to acknowledge that many of the chapters that comprise Musical Bodies, Musical Minds began as research articles, some of which involved additional collaborators who contributed in important ways to the ideas presented in this book.

Chapter 5, “Music and Emotion,” is based on an article authored by Schiavio and van der Schyff in collaboration with Julian Cespedes-Guevara and Mark Reybrouck (Schiavio et al., 2017). We thank Julian and Mark for their contribution to that article and for their suggestions on the present chapter. Thanks also to Mark for his comments on chapter 1. Chapter 6, “The Empathic Connection,” is based on an article by van der Schyff and Joel Krueger (2019). Thanks to Joel for reading and commenting on this chapter. Chapter 8, “Teleomusicality,” develops sections that originally appeared in an article coauthored by Schiavio, van der Schyff, Silke Kruse-Weber, and Renee Timmers (2017). Thanks to Renee and Silke for reading and commenting on this revised version. Chapter 9, “Creative Musical Bodies,” is based on an article written with Valerio Velardo, Ashley Walton, and Anthony Chem- ero (van der Schyff et al., 2018). We thank Valerio, Ashley, and Anthony for their contributions to the ideas presented in this chapter.

In the first endnote of each chapter, we indicate our previously published articles that contribute to the discussion in Musical Bodies, Musical Minds. We thank the journal editors and the many anonymous reviewers from whom we received important critical feedback that helped us sharpen our arguments. We would also like to express our appreciation to Ezequiel Di Paolo, who commented on chapter 2; to Tiger Roholt, who commented on chapters 1 and 3; to Luca Barlassina, who commented on an early version of chapter 3; to Tom Froese, who commented on a previous draft of chapter 7; and to Mathias Benedek, who commented on chapter 9.

A huge thank you must also go to Eric Clarke, who facilitated and mentored van der Schyff’s 2017–2019 postdoctoral fellowship hosted by the University of Oxford. Professor Clarke read and made detailed comments on drafts of the opening chapters. He also engaged in numerous informal discussions that helped to clarify many of the themes developed throughout the book. van der Schyff would like to acknowledge the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC) for their financial support of this fellowship. He would also like to thank Professors Nikki Dibben and Susan O’Neill for their generous supervision and support. Schiavio would like to thank Professor Richard Parncutt and his colleagues at the Centre for Systematic Musicology of the University of Graz for extended conversations about and constructive feedback on many of the themes developed in the book. He is also grateful to many friends and colleagues with whom he has recently collaborated, including Mathias Benedek, Michele Biasutti, Nikki Moran, Kevin Ryan, Jan Stupacher, Renee Timmers, Jonna Vuoskoski, and many others. We thank Leigh van der Schyff for her lovely drawings in chapter 2. We would also like to thank Philip Laughlin and the team at MIT Press for their patience and expert assistance. And we are grateful to the anonymous reviewers who read and made useful comments on the final drafts of the manuscript. Last, we express our gratitude and love to our families and friends who supported us during the writing of this book.

Sound and Music for Games: Basics of Digital Audio for Video Games

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Sound and Music for Games: Basics of Digital Audio for Video Games - The intended readership includes beginners in digital audio engineering who use Windows, macOS...


Grasp the fundamentals of digital audio work in the context of video games including the basics of middleware such as Fmod and Wwise. We will review software such as Apple's Logic and Garageband, Paul Davis' Ardour, and many other popular digital audio workstations.

We will start with an introduction to the basic terminology of digital audio work while also getting acquainted with current generation audio hardware. We will then discuss the...

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Sound and Music for Games: Basics of Digital Audio for Video Games

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Grasp the fundamentals of digital audio work in the context of video games including the basics of middleware such as Fmod and Wwise. We will review software such as Apple's Logic and Garageband, Paul Davis' Ardour, and many other popular digital audio workstations.

We will start with an introduction to the basic terminology of digital audio work while also getting acquainted with current generation audio hardware. We will then discuss the basics of venerable Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) and how it relates to music composition as well as the tools and techniques for writing tracker music/chiptunes. The book also covers plug-in software, soundproofing at home, and voice work.

The book takes a practical approach when tackling both hardware and software components used in cutting edge audio engineering, composition, and audio monitoring.

What You Will Learn
• Understand the fundamentals of digital audio production in the context of video games
• Learn about audio integration with popular middleware solutions and APIs

• Leverage plugin effects software to sculpt your audio to professional levels
• Identify the modern audio file formats and how and when to use them

• Find out the best practices when mixing sound effects and music for video games

Who Is This Book For
The intended readership includes beginners in digital audio engineering who use Windows, macOS, or Linux.

About the Author

Robert Ciesla is an author from Helsinki, Finland. He has a BA in Journalism from Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences and an

MA in Intercultural Encounters from the University of Helsinki. Robert has written five nonfiction books. He has a strong background in audio engineering for bands and video games starting from the tracker/chiptune scene in the 16-bit era of the 1990s at age 12.

Acknowledgments

Many thanks to the Association of Finnish Nonfiction Writers for their support in the production of this book.

Introduction

This book was written for those with a burgeoning passion for video game music and modern audio technology. We’ll start with the absolute fundamentals of digital audio, moving onto topics like digital audio workstations (DAWs) and the venerable MIDI (Musical Instruments Digital Interface) standard. We’ll then cover the sometimes overlooked genre of chiptunes and retro audio hardware. Finally, we take a gander at the basics of modern video game sound solutions as well as music distribution and licensing.

The purpose of this book is simply to arm you with beneficial knowledge when taking on the exciting challenges of video game audio. Even if you have some previous experience in these matters, you may
find some new and useful information from these pages. After finishing this book, you’ll probably feel more comfortable discussing sample rates, tracker software, and the joys of latency. I hope my book serves you well on your audio producer’s journey.

Sincerely, Robert

Drum like a pro: A Complete Guide on Drumming for Beginners

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Drum like a pro: A Complete Guide on Drumming for Beginners - Do you want to learn how to play the drums? This book covers the fundamentals of drumming, even...


Do you want to learn how to play the drums? This book covers the fundamentals of drumming, even if you do not have idea where to begin your journey. This book will help you choose the right equipment for your needs, get started playing the drums, and even read music. Some call it a 'drum set,' while others call it a 'drum kit.' Drums, are an instrument with no right or wrong answer when it comes to how many and which sections you may utilize...

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Drum like a pro: A Complete Guide on Drumming for Beginners

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Do you want to learn how to play the drums? This book covers the fundamentals of drumming, even if you do not have idea where to begin your journey. This book will help you choose the right equipment for your needs, get started playing the drums, and even read music. Some call it a 'drum set,' while others call it a 'drum kit.' Drums, are an instrument with no right or wrong answer when it comes to how many and which sections you may utilize to generate music...

OVERVIEW

•Introduction to drumming
•Drum set components
•How to select drum equipment
•Choosing which drums to purchase
•What materials are used to make drums?
•Drum components
•Common drum pads
•Selecting drum heads
•Selecting drum sticks
•Selecting cymbals
•Selecting drum hardwares
•Purchase earplugs
•Getting your drum kit ready
•Putting together a standard right-handed drum kit
•How to wear a drum head
•Drums tunning
•Getting your toms ready
•Snare drum tuning
•Bass drum tuning
•Counting music: the instructions
•How to learn to read music
•Reading music sheets (standard notes)
•How do you read drum tabs?
•How to care for drumsticks
•Beginner drum lessons
•Considerations to make prior to mounting the throne
•How to operate a metronome
•Creating drum beats
•Performing drum fills
•Rudiments in play
•Preparation for drumming
•Drums for practice
•Locating a drum teacher
•Some of the most common mistakes made by beginner drummers...

Ludwig van Beethoven: The Piano Sonatas; History, Notation, Interpretation

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Ludwig van Beethoven: The Piano Sonatas; History, Notation, Interpretation - A comprehensive and immersive survey of thirty-five Beethoven piano sonatas


A comprehensive and immersive survey of thirty-five Beethoven piano sonatas

“Beethoven piano sonatas accompany every pianist, amateur or professional for his or her entire life and constitute one of the most miraculous constants of the human civilization. To help us around the exciting journey through those masterpieces Jan Marisse Huizing combines his expertise, knowledge, and above all his unconditional love for this music.”— Alexander...

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PDF Ludwig van Beethoven: The Piano Sonatas; History, Notation, Interpretation

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A comprehensive and immersive survey of thirty-five Beethoven piano sonatas

“Beethoven piano sonatas accompany every pianist, amateur or professional for his or her entire life and constitute one of the most miraculous constants of the human civilization. To help us around the exciting journey through those masterpieces Jan Marisse Huizing combines his expertise, knowledge, and above all his unconditional love for this music.”— Alexander Melnikov, pianist

Beethoven’s piano sonatas are among the iconic cornerstones of the classical music repertoire. Jan Marisse Huizing offers an in-depth study of the sonatas using available autographs, first editions, recordings, and nearly three hundred musical examples.

Digging into the historical background and historical performance practice, the book provides illuminating detail on Beethoven’s pianism as well as his characteristics of notation, form and content, “types of touch,” articulation, beaming, pedal indications, character, rubato, meter, metric constructions, tempo, and metronome marks.

Packed with anecdotes, quotations, and considerable new information, the book will inspire all involved with these masterworks, playing a fortepiano or modern Grand, giving the sense of the composer sitting beside them as he translates his inspiration and ideas into his notation.

Preface

WHILE MANY STUDIES OF Beethoven’s piano sonatas, for example those of Schenker, Tovey, Uhde, Rosen, and many others, concentrate specifically on analytical aspects such as form and harmony, this book has its origins in the need to highlight a number of other, no less important themes.

Questions like the correlation of the musical content and form, knowledge of historical performance practice, and the choice of instrument contribute just as significantly to the insight we can gain into Beethoven’s piano sonatas.

In addition, for a well-considered interpretation, attention must be paid to the manner in which Beethoven expressed his musical objectives, to his own specific sound-image, his pianism, and the way in which he expressed his intentions in the notation. The significance of Beethoven’s handwriting
along with knowledge of the various editions, from the original printing through to the current urtext, are equally necessary for the creation of a convincing interpretation.

Of course, this book also investigates the playing of great interpreters, both past and present, whereby a historical overview is presented of the many recordings that have been made of Beethoven’s piano sonatas, including filmed recordings on DVD.

Many of these subjects came to the fore during my years as professor of piano and piano methodology at the Amsterdam Conservatory, where it was my privilege to find a kindred spirit in the person of my colleague, the pianist Willem Brons. Over the years it was an inspiring journey of exchanging discoveries and ideas about Beethoven interpretation, which led to invaluable contributions for this book. Thanks must also go to pianist/organist Christo Lelie for his continuing support and making available to me his extensive library and archive. Also warmly appreciated were interesting suggestions from my colleagues Albert Brussee, fortepianist Bart van Oort, and the Australian pianist Geoffrey Douglas Madge. In addition, I am grateful to the late Frans Schreuder. His substantial archive was of great importance during my research.

After the first edition of this book was published in German by Schott in 2012 (translation from the Dutch by Matthias Müller), further research strengthened my desire to publish an expanded English edition.

In preparing this manuscript, I would like to thank Dr. Silke Bettermann from the Beethoven-Haus in Bonn for her important information, and my sincere thanks go to Bart van Sambeek for editing several music examples. Furthermore, I must express my gratitude to the late eminent concert pianist and scholar Paul Badura-Skoda. His kind comments and advice were of great value in bringing this book to completion.

The task for this English translation was undertaken by Gerald Mettam on the basis of the original expanded Dutch manuscript. This led to an inspiring collaboration for which I am very grateful. In addition, I have to thank Matthias Müller again, who translated quotations from the German, French, and Italian sources insofar as an original source was not already available (see Bibliography). Furthermore, I must express my thanks to Schott and Universal Edition, whose edition of the sonatas I used for the majority of the music examples. Finally, my thanks go to Yale University Press, in particular and “in order of appearance”: pianist Boris Berman for alerting editor Sarah Miller to the manuscript, language manager Ash Lago, the two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments and suggestions, editor Jaya Chatterjee, author Harry Haskell for his expert editing of the manuscript, editorial assistant Eva Skewes, Millie Piekos for excellent proofreading, and senior production editor Joyce Ippolito. They have all been wonderful. I am pleased that this English edition is now available and hope that this book will be a source of inspiration for all those involved with Beethoven’s piano sonatas—as professionals, as amateurs, or, not least, just out of interest in these masterworks.

The Hallelujah Effect

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The Hallelujah Effect - Philosophical Reflections on Music, Performance Practice, and Technology By Babette Babich


This book studies the working efficacy of Leonard Cohen's song Hallelujah in the context of today's network culture. Especially as recorded on YouTube, k.d. lang's interpretation(s) of Cohen's Hallelujah, embody acoustically and visually/viscerally, what Nietzsche named the 'spirit of music'.

Today, the working of music is magnified and transformed by recording dynamics and mediated via Facebook exchanges, blog postings and video sites...

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PDF The Hallelujah Effect

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This book studies the working efficacy of Leonard Cohen's song Hallelujah in the context of today's network culture. Especially as recorded on YouTube, k.d. lang's interpretation(s) of Cohen's Hallelujah, embody acoustically and visually/viscerally, what Nietzsche named the 'spirit of music'.

Today, the working of music is magnified and transformed by recording dynamics and mediated via Facebook exchanges, blog postings and video sites. Given the sexual/religious core of Cohen's Hallelujah, this study poses a phenomenological reading of the objectification of both men and women, raising the question of desire, including gender issues and both homosexual and heterosexual desire. A review of critical thinking about musical performance as 'currency' and consumed commodity takes up Adorno's reading of Benjamin's analysis of the work of art in the age of mechanical reproduction as applied to music/radio/sound and the persistent role of 'recording consciousness'.

Ultimately, the question of what Nietzsche called the becoming-human-of-dissonance is explored in terms of both ancient tragedy and Beethoven's striking deployment of dissonance as Nietzsche analyses both as playing with suffering, discontent, and pain itself, a playing for the sake not of language or sense but musically, as joy.

General Editor’s Preface

The upheaval that occurred in musicology during the last two decades of the twentieth century has created a new urgency for the study of popular music alongside the development of new critical and theoretical models. A relativistic outlook has replaced the universal perspective of modernism (the international ambitions of the 12-note style); the grand narrative of the evolution and dissolution of tonality has been challenged, and emphasis has shifted to cultural context, reception and subject position. Together, these have conspired to eat away at the status of canonical composers and categories of high and low in music. A need has arisen, also, to recognize and address the emergence of crossovers, mixed and new genres, to engage in debates concerning the vexed problem of what constitutes authenticity in music and to offer a critique of musical practice as the product of free, individual expression.

Popular musicology is now a vital and exciting area of scholarship, and the Ashgate Popular and Folk Music Series presents some of the best research in the field. Authors are concerned with locating musical practices, values and meanings in cultural context, and draw upon methodologies and theories developed in cultural studies, semiotics, poststructuralism, psychology and sociology. The series focuses on popular musics of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. It is designed to embrace the world’s popular musics from Acid Jazz to Zydeco, whether high tech or low tech, commercial or non-commercial, contemporary or traditional.

Professor Derek B. Scott Professor of Critical Musicology University of Leeds

Acknowledgements

The first words to be said on the Hallelujah effect are those of thanks, words that usually go without saying, words that never say enough.

This, when it comes to music, is as it should be, for without music, so Nietzsche contended, life itself would be a mistake, as music transfigures so much of life and to comprehend this is such a challenge for philosophy. The theme in its many modulations is one I have been thinking about for many years, back to the 1970s and 1980s, and maybe all my life; yet despite this personal preoccupation, this book is one that could never have been written alone, in particular not without the electric and personal dynamism that may be traced back to an important catena of emails between myself and Ernest McClain at the end of April and early May 2011. Where other scholars dismiss and sometimes denounce alternate approaches as ones “they do not understand,” McClain “transgressed” this common academic habitus, and this venture and the resultant adventure of this encounter continues to draw my admiration and respect. I could not begin to thank the great musicians, Leonard Cohen, John Cale, k.d. lang, Jane Siberry, Joan Baez—just to name some of the living voices I draw upon here. What is significant, and this is where Adorno’s study of what he called the “current of music” comes in, is that this living power continues in sound and image, on YouTube, as k.d. lang’s powerful performances make very clear, and as one can also see and hear in musicians lost to us, such as Nina Simone, whose performances I also discuss. I am grateful to the filmmaker Percy Adlon for conversation on k.d. lang, to Robert Kory for his kind and very human email correspondence with regard to Leonard Cohen, and I thank Joshua Grange (not only for retweets).

In addition, I gratefully acknowledge Jason Gross’s kind permission to reprint parts of my original essay, “The Birth of k.d. lang’s Hallelujah out of the Spirit of Music,” which appeared in the fall of 2011 in Perfect Sound Forever. I note that Perfect Sound Forever differs from most journals as it also includes a very performative subtitle: Perfect Sound Forever: on line music magazine presents ... This journal is also itself an exemplar, or phenomenological illumination, of the value of an online publication which one might otherwise take for granted as a simple replication or virtual version of text or print. Bloomsbury Books also granted permission to reprint parts of my “Mousiké techné: The Philosophical Praxis of Music in Plato, Nietzsche, Heidegger,” which had originally been invited for a Continuum collection edited by Robert
Burch (to whom personally I also owe special thanks for inspiration and the graciousness of our correspondence) together with Massimo Verdicchio, Gesture and Word: Thinking Between Philosophy and Poetry. I am thankful to Ralf Kläs for permission to use his photography, as I am also indebted to Alois Steiner. I am very grateful to Janet Morgan for permission to use her mother Barbara Morgan’s astonishing photography; I thank Ursula Zollna, Peter Zollna’s widow, for permission to reprint his photograph of Theodor Adorno; and I am grateful to Michael Schwarz for his help. I thank Bettina Erlenkamp of the Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Dresden for her help. I also thank Katharina Siegmann of the Schirn Kunsthalle in Frankfurt and I acknowledge the kind offices of the Villa Stuck for permission to use Franz von Stuck’s Orpheus on the cover of this book. I am grateful to Joan Baez for permission to cite Diamonds and Rust and I thank Jane Siberry for her permission to quote from her song, love is everything. In addition, I acknowledge Sony/ATV and Random House for permission to cite Leonard Cohen’s Hallelujah here. But above all, I thank the artist, I thank the poet Leonard Cohen for his song.

A version of this essay may be heard and seen, which synaesthetic combination is the heart of media today, in the form of a video lecture, available on YouTube and, in a correspondingly higher quality, in a video stream on the Fordham University Library video on demand website. I am grateful to the Director of the Fordham Library, James McCabe, and to Michael Considine, Director of Information Technology Services at the Fordham University Library, for making the production and hosting of this video a possibility. I thank the musicologist and television and video expert (and ice climber) Dr Mat Schottenfeld of Fordham University for his assistance, kindness, and productive expertise. I also thank Kate Motush for her help, indirectly, in matters concerning video.

I am grateful to Derek B. Scott as editor of the Folk and Popular Music Series at Ashgate. As an admirer of his work, I am grateful for his input which made a great difference to me. I also thank Heidi Bishop, Publisher, Laura Macy, Senior Commissioning Editor, Music Studies, as well as Pam Bertram, Senior Editor at Ashgate, in addition to expressing my special gratitude to Patrick Cole for his careful and invaluable help in copyediting.

I also thank, for their responses to my inquiries on this theme, and for kind words on this project, Geraldine Finn, Robert Fink, Lori Burns, Ruth A. Solie, and Rose Rosengarde Subotnik. I am also grateful to Lydia Goehr who gave me the opportunity to present a twitter-length version of the final chapter in the aesthetics seminar that she hosts at Columbia University in the fall of 2012. I also thank Fawzia Mustafa of Fordham University for the invitation to talk about this at Women’s Studies Workshop at the same time. I also thank in advance, because of all his inspiration and kindness past, Gary Shapiro for organizing a philosophy panel on Leonard Cohen at the 2013 World Conference of Philosophy in Athens and for asking me to take part.

My friends and colleagues are named in part either in the text or the notes to the text, but I wish to express my gratitude to Eileen Sweeney who was very helpful to me on these themes, to Debra Bergoffen, to Nicole Fermon, to Frank Boyle, and to Fred Harris and Matthew McGuire. For friendship and for musical resonances, I thank Susan Nitzberg, Hans-Gerald Hödl, George Leiner and Bettina Bergo, as well as Nanette Nielsen and Tomas McAuley. In addition to my gratitude to Claire Katz, I also thank Andrew Benjamin for reporting to me that, in the course of one of his lecture tours, a student announced to him that he was “famous” because he was mentioned on YouTube in my lecture on k.d. lang. This is, of course, not true, but it is a charming notion all the same. I thank my husband Tracy Strong for his love and conversation, intellectual and musical. I also thank Richard Cobb-Stevens for his positive response (he is a k.d. lang fan), as well as Patrick Heelan, S.J. for his amused enthusiasm, and William J. Richardson, S.J. In addition, I am thankful to twitter colleagues for kind words, particularly Terence Blake, but also @synaesthete99, @dance_historian, @pettrust and Mark Carrigan and, just for fun, Tristan Burke—@svejky. For his help, long ago now, for his bravery in publishing an essay on the Sokal hoax, and all the complexities of hermeneutics that go along with that, I thank, just gratuitously, in the spirit of Hallelujah, Jeffrey Perl, editor of common knowledge; and another editor whom I admire for similar graciousness, William MacAllister, editor of International Studies in the Philosophy of Science. In the musical arena, where friendship crosses, I am grateful to my friends Annette Hornbacher and Jochen Schönleber for their responses to this work, important because for many years they have been involved in music together, performative on every level, Jochen as ongoing artistic producer and Annette as past stage director of Rossini in Wildbad. In addition, I am enthusiastically grateful to Alexander Nehamas and David Allison (I love them both), as well as to Alphonso Lingis and Stanley Aronowitz. I also thank my students, especially Michael Fabano and Thomas Beddoe. Craig Konnoth and Carrie Gillespie have my gratitude, as well as Jeff Bussolini who now teaches at CUNY in New York City, and I have to say, all my students as well.

I thank Holger Schmid for conversation and for the extraordinary friendship we have shared for more than two decades. And here too, and finally, I thank Bill Strongin, who taught me about David—and his songs.

Weimar, 12 June 2012

The Psychology of Music (Cognition and Perception)

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The Psychology of Music (Cognition and Perception) - The Psychology of Music serves as an introduction to an interdisciplinary field in psychology...


The Psychology of Music serves as an introduction to an interdisciplinary field in psychology, which focuses on the interpretation of music through mental function. This interpretation leads to the characterization of music through perceiving, remembering, creating, performing, and responding to music.

In particular, the book provides an overview of the perception of musical tones by discussing different sound characteristics, like...

Read more about this resource...

The Psychology of Music (Cognition and Perception)

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The Psychology of Music.jpg

The Psychology of Music serves as an introduction to an interdisciplinary field in psychology, which focuses on the interpretation of music through mental function. This interpretation leads to the characterization of music through perceiving, remembering, creating, performing, and responding to music.

In particular, the book provides an overview of the perception of musical tones by discussing different sound characteristics, like loudness, pitch and timbre, together with interaction between these attributes. It also discusses the effect of computer resources on the psychological study of music through computational modeling. In this way, models of pitch perception, grouping and voice separation, and harmonic analysis were developed. The book further discusses musical development in social and emotional contexts, and it presents ways that music training can enhance the singing ability of an individual.

The book can be used as a reference source for perceptual and cognitive psychologists, neuroscientists, and musicians. It can also serve as a textbook for advanced courses in the psychological study of music.

Preface

The aim of this book is to interpret musical phenomena in terms of mental function—to characterize the ways in which we perceive, remember, create, perform, and respond to music. The book is intended as a comprehensive reference source for perceptual and cognitive psychologists, neuroscientists, and musicians, as well as a textbook for advanced courses on the psychology of music.

In 1982, when the first edition of The Psychology of Music was published, this interdisciplinary field was in its infancy. Music had no established position within psychology, and few music theorists acknowledged the relevance of empirical research. The book, which drew together the diverse and scattered literature that had accumulated over the previous decade, was written by a group of visionaries from different areas of scholarship—psychologists, neuroscientists, engineers, music theorists and composers—who were committed to establishing this new discipline.

During the years since the first edition was published the field has expanded rapidly, and there have been enormous strides in our understanding of the psychology of music, particularly since publication of the second edition of this volume in 1999. This progress has been due in part to the development of computer technology, and more specifically to the availability of new software that has enabled researchers to generate, analyze and transform sounds with ease, precision and flexibility. Developments in neuroscience—in particular neuroimaging techniques—have led to an enormous increase in findings concerning the neuroanatomical substrates of musical processing. In addition, input from music theorists and composers continues to play a central role in addressing fundamental questions about the way we process musical structures.

The massive development of research on the psychology of music has resulted in the recent publication of a number of highly readable books on the subject written for a general audience. Among these are Oliver Sacks’ Musicophilia, Philip Ball’s The Music Instinct, and Daniel Levitin’s This Is Your Brain On Music. William Thompson’s Music, Thought, and Feeling serves as an excellent textbook for undergraduate courses on the psychology of music. Other recently published and highly successful books include John Sloboda’s The Musical Mind, Aniruddh Patel’s Music, Language, and the Brain, and David Huron’s Sweet Anticipation. The present volume serves to provide in-depth coverage of research findings and theories in the different subareas of the field, written by world-renowned authorities in these subareas.

The volume opens with a chapter on The Perception of Musical Tones, by Andrew Oxenham (Chapter 1), which sets the stage for those that follow. Oxenham first reviews psychoacoustic methodology. Then drawing on behavioral and physio- logical evidence, together with theoretical models, he provides a thoughtful overview of findings concerning tone perception, particularly in musical contexts. Here we find discussions of loudness, pitch, and timbre, together with interactions between these attributes.
Consonance, dissonance, and roughness are also explored, as are higher-level interactions that occur when multiple pitches are presented.

The understanding of timbre perception is of central importance to composers of new music. In his interdisciplinary chapter Musical Timbre Perception (Chapter 2), Stephen McAdams provides a detailed exploration of research on timbre, particularly involving the multidimensional scaling of timbre spaces.
Such spaces have been put to intriguing use, for example in defining and exploiting fine-grained relationships between timbres. McAdams also discusses the perceptual blending of instruments to create new timbres, as well as the use of timbre to organize events into coherent groupings and to achieve perceptual separations between groupings.

Johan Sundberg’s provocative chapter on Perception of Singing (Chapter 3) addresses many puzzling questions. For example, how is it that we can hear a singer’s voice against a loud orchestral background? How are we able to identify sung vowels, even when these differ considerably from those of speech? How do we identify the gender and register of a particular singer even when the range of his or her voice is common to all singers and several registers? These questions are expertly addressed in the context of an overview of the acoustics of the singing voice.

In Intervals and Scales (Chapter 4), William Thompson examines our sensitivity to pitch relationships in music, and to the musical scales that help us organize these relationships—issues that are essential to the understanding of music perception. The chapter addresses questions such as how musical intervals are processed by the auditory system, whether certain intervals have a special perceptual status, and why most music is organized around scales. One discussion of particular importance concerns the characteristics of scales that appear as cross-cultural universals, and those that appear to be culture-specific.

The genesis of absolute pitch has intrigued musicians for centuries, and this is explored in Absolute Pitch (Deutsch, Chapter 5). Is it an inherited trait that becomes manifest as soon as the opportunity arises? Alternatively, can it be acquired at any time through extensive practice? Or does it depend on exposure to pitches in association with their names during a critical period early in life? These hypotheses are explored, and evidence for a strong tie with speech and language is discussed. The neuroanatomical substrates of absolute pitch are examined, as are relationships between this abililty and other abilities.

Consider what happens when we listen to a performance by an orchestra. The sounds that reach our ears are produced by many instruments playing in parallel. How does our auditory system sort out this mixture of sounds, so that we may choose to listen to a particular instrument, or to a particular melodic line? Grouping Mechanisms in Music (Deutsch, Chapter 6) examines this and related questions, drawing from perceptual and physiological studies, together with input from music theorists. It is also shown that listeners may perceptually reorganize what they hear, so that striking illusions result.

The next chapter, on The Processing of Pitch Combinations (Deutsch, Chapter 7) explores how pitch is represented in the mind of the listener at different levels of abstraction. The chapter examines how listeners organize pitches in music so as to perceive coherent phrases, and it is argued that at the highest level of abstraction music is represented in the form of coherent patterns that are linked together as hierarchical structures. The chapter also surveys research on short-term memory for different features of tone, and explores a number of musical illusions that are related to speech.

With the development of computer resources, computational modeling has assumed increasing importance in the field of music cognition—particularly in combination with behavioral and physiological studies. In Computational Models of Music Cognition (Chapter 8), David Temperley provides a thoughtful overview and evaluation of research in the field. He examines models of key and meter identification in detail. In addition, he discusses models of pitch perception, grouping and voice separation, and harmonic analysis. Models of music performance (includ- ing expressivity) are evaluated, as are models of musical experience. Finally, com- puter algorithms for music composition are considered.

Research concerning temporal aspects of music perception and cognition has expanded considerably over the last decade. In Structure and Interpretation of Rhythm in Music (Chapter 9), Henkjan Honing provides an overview of findings concerning the perception of rhythm, meter, tempo, and timing, from both a music theoretic and a cognitive perspective. He also considers how listeners distill a discrete rhythmic pattern from a continuous series of intervals, and emphasizes that rhythms as they are perceived often deviate considerably from the temporal patterns that are presented. Related to this, the roles of context, expectations and long- term familiarity with the music are discussed.

The performance of music draws on a multitude of complex functions, including the visual analysis of musical notations, translating these into motor acts, coordinating information from different sensory modalities, employing fine motor skills, and the use of auditory feedback. In Music Performance: Movement and Coordination (Chapter 10), Caroline Palmer addresses these issues, particularly focusing on recent work involving the use of new motion capture and video analysis techniques. She also considers research on ensemble playing, in particular how musicians conform the details of their performance to those of other members of the ensemble.

Laurel Trainor and Erin Hannon, in Musical Development (Chapter 11), address fundamental issues concerning the psychology of music from a developmental perspective. Following a discussion of musical capacities at various stages of development, the authors consider innate and environmental influences, including the roles played by critical periods. They consider those aspects of musical processing that appear universal, and those that appear specific to particular cultures. They also review findings indicating that music and language have overlapping neurological substrates. As a related issue, the authors examine effects of musical training on linguistic and other cognitive abilities.

Continuing with Music and Cognitive Abilities (Chapter 12), Glenn Schellenberg and Michael Weiss provide a detailed appraisal of associations between music and other cognitive functions. The chapter discusses cognitive ability immediately following listening to music (termed the “Mozart effect”), the effects of background music on cognitive function, and associations between musical training and various cognitive abilities. The authors provide evidence that musical training is associated with general intelligence, and more specifically with linguistic abilities. They argue, therefore, that musical processing is not solely the function of specialized modules, but also reflects general properties of the cognitive system.

Isabelle Peretz, in The Biological Foundations of Music: Insights from Congenital Amusia (Chapter 13), stresses the opposing view—that musical ability is distinct from language, and is subserved primarily by specialized neural networks. Here she focuses on congenital amusia—a musical disability that cannot be attributed to mental retardation, deafness, lack of exposure, or brain damage after birth. She discusses evidence for an association of this condition with an unusual brain organization, and provides evidence that congenital amusia has a genetic basis.

Relationships between musical ability and other abilities are further considered by Catherine Wan and Gottfried Schlaug, in Brain Plasticity Induced by Musical Training (Chapter 14). The authors point out that music lessons involve training a host of complex skills, including coordination of multisensory information with bimanual motor activity, development of fine motor skills, and the use of auditory feedback. They review findings showing effects of musical training on brain organization, and they focus on research in their laboratory that explores the therapeutic potential of music-based interventions in facilitating speech in chronic stroke patients with aphasia, and in autistic children.

The reason why music invokes emotions has been the subject of considerable debate. In their chapter on Music and Emotion (Chapter 15) Patrik Juslin and John Sloboda provide a thoughtful overview of findings and theories in the field. They draw an important distinction between emotion as expressed in music, and emotion as induced in the listener, pointing out that there is no simple relation between the two. They hypothesize that many of the characteristics of musical communication can best be explained, at least in part, in terms of a code for expression of the basic emotional categories by the human voice.

In Comparative Music Cognition: Cross-Species and Cross-Cultural Studies (Chapter 16), Aniruddh Patel and Steven Demorest address two issues of funda- mental importance to the understanding of musical processing. First, which musical capacities are uniquely human, and which do we share with nonhuman species? In addressing this issue, the authors shed light on the evolution of musical abilities. The second issue concerns the enormous diversity of human music across cultures. Theories and research findings that are based on the music of a single tradition are in principle limited in their application. The authors present evidence that certain aspects of music cross cultural lines while others are culture-specific, so clarifying the scope of existing theory.

The book concludes with Robert Gjerdingen’s Psychologists and Musicians: Then and Now (Chapter 17), which supplies an engaging and informative overview of past and present thinking about the psychology of music. In reviewing approaches to this subject over the centuries, Gjerdingen contrasts those that stress low-level factors such as the physiology of the inner ear with those that consider musical processing in terms of complex, high-order functions. The chapter includes intriguing biographical information concerning some of the notable contributors to the field, which are reflected in their formal writings about music and musical pro- cessing. The chapter also provides a critical overview of the psychology of music as it stands today.

An interdisciplinary volume such as this one can only be considered a group endeavor, and I am grateful to all the authors, who have devoted so much time and thought in bringing the book to fruition. I am grateful to Nikki Levy and Barbara Makinster for their help, and am particularly grateful to Kirsten Chrisman, Publishing Director of Life Sciences Books at Elsevier, for her wise and effective guidance, and to Katie Spiller for her expertise and professionalism in producing the book.

Diana Deutsch

Song Writing For Beginners

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Song Writing For Beginners - How To Write A Song in 7 Simple Steps Even If You Don't Know Music Theory


Yes, this book is designed entirely to share those secrets that will inspire you to write that great song that you know you can! And once the creativity really starts flowing, we'll create great habits and write even more, each and every day. Get down to writing the music and the lyrics you know that you can because writer's block is a fantasy. You just need inspiration.

Have you always wanted to put your thoughts and feelings into the...

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Song Writing For Beginners

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Song Writing For Beginners.jpg

Yes, this book is designed entirely to share those secrets that will inspire you to write that great song that you know you can! And once the creativity really starts flowing, we'll create great habits and write even more, each and every day. Get down to writing the music and the lyrics you know that you can because writer's block is a fantasy. You just need inspiration.

Have you always wanted to put your thoughts and feelings into the form of musical lyrics but couldn't quite make the transition? If so, then Song Writing For Beginners. Inside you will find everything you need to walk you through the lyrics-writing process to ensure you go from novice to maestro in no time flat. Writing successful lyrics is all about feeling strong emotions about a person, event or set of circumstances and expressing those feelings in a unique, well thought out way. The rest is simply understanding the proper placement of lines and verse and knowing how to properly expand upon any initial ideas you may have until they form the type of cohesive thought that is easy to set to music. This guide will walk you through all of the particulars in such a way that you can't help but come up with the basic outlines of a song, if not a rough version of the whole thing. Let your inner lyricist out for a spin, consider picking up this guide today.

Here is a preview of what you'll learn:

  • A breakdown of common song and chorus/verse structures
  • Surefire tips to ensure you make the most of any inspiration
  • Guaranteed methods of improving your word choice for maximum results
  • Specific chapters detailing extra tips for writing love songs, rock songs and rap songs
  • Much, much more!
If you want to develop as a songwriter, possibly even with the goal of going pro, then these are topics you need to think about.

Introduction

Your average songwriter does more than scribble down a few rhymes and slap on a beat or harmony. Songwriting involves writing meaningful lyrics, developing a good melody, and arranging that lyric to a specific musical style, harmonic structure, and rhythm.

Some songwriters might specialize in one aspect like lyrics or arranging, and then work with a cowriter that balances out their own strengths and weaknesses. Not all songwriters are performers, and many of the Top 40 songs that we hear over and over on Spotify or Pandora are written by an experienced songwriter who then provides their song to top-level talent to record it.

Every jingle that you hear and children’s song that you remember had an original songwriter, even if they have been forgotten for generations. The same can be said for musicals, sacred music, and opera. Anytime a lyric is put to a melody, you can bet that a songwriter played a key role.

Music as Cultural Heritage and Novelty

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Music as Cultural Heritage and Novelty - This book provides a multifaceted view on the relation between the old and the new in music, betw...


This book provides a multifaceted view on the relation between the old and the new in music, between tradition and innovation. This is a much-debated issue, generating various ideas and theories, which rarely come to unanimous conclusions. Therefore, the book offers diverse perspectives on topics such as national identities, narrative strategies, the question of musical performance and musical meaning.

Alongside themes of general interest...

Read more about this resource...

Music as Cultural Heritage and Novelty

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Music as Cultural Heritage and Novelty.jpg

This book provides a multifaceted view on the relation between the old and the new in music, between tradition and innovation. This is a much-debated issue, generating various ideas and theories, which rarely come to unanimous conclusions. Therefore, the book offers diverse perspectives on topics such as national identities, narrative strategies, the question of musical performance and musical meaning.

Alongside themes of general interest, such as classical repertoire, the music of well-established composers and musical topics, the chapters of the book also touch on specific, but equally interesting subjects, like Brazilian traditions, Serbian and Romanian composers and the lullaby. While the book is mostly addressed to researchers, it can also be recommended to students in musicology, ethnomusicology, musical performance, and musical semiotics.

The series originates from the need to create a more proactive platform in the form of monographs and edited volumes in thematic collections, to contribute to the new emerging fields within art and humanistic research, and also to discuss the ongoing crisis of the humanities and its possible solutions, in a spirit that should be both critical and self-critical.

“Numanities” (New Humanities) aim at unifying the various approaches and potentials of arts and humanities in the context, dynamics and problems of current societies. The series, indexed in Scopus, is intended to target a broad academic audi- ence. Aside from taking interest in work generally deemed as ‘traditional humanities research’, Numanities are also focused on texts which meet the demands of societal changes. Such texts include multi/inter/cross/transdisciplinary dialogues between humanities and social, or natural sciences. Moreover, the series is interested also in what one may call “humanities in disguise”, that is, works that may currently belong to non-humanistic areas, but remain epistemologically rooted in a humanistic vision of the world. We also welcome are less academically-conventional forms of research animated by creative and innovative humanities-based approaches, as well as applied humanities. Lastly, this book series is interested in forms of investigations in which the humanities monitor and critically asses their scientific status and social condition.

This series will publish monographs, edited volumes, and commented translations.

Preface

Old and new, tradition and innovation, and heritage and novelty: these complementary categories, where they intersect and how they relate to one another, represent the basic premise for this volume. The debate around these notions, a commonplace in the study of culture, has nurtured many reflections within an area of musicological research that belongs to classical studies, comparative musicology, music anthropology and sociology alike. There can be no innovation without a tradition to refer to, and tradition always stems from what was new at a certain time in history. It goes without saying that we are dealing with a virtually infinite array of possible subjects, approaches and standpoints, which make such a general theme all the more appealing.

Readers of this volume will find a collection of topics originally introduced at the 14th International Congress on Musical Signification, held at the “Gheorghe Dima” Music Academy of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. These studies reflect the major purpose of this meeting, which was to re-examine some of the assumptions upon which the analysis of music has been based traditionally, and to propose ways in which not only these assumptions, but also recent methods and perspectives can open new pathways in musicological research. In these studies, the authors, leading experts in our field, as well as excellent young scholars, invite the readers to explore a vast cultural territory spanning from Serbia to Brazil, from Romania to Poland, and from Hungary to the United States, with the common purpose of investigating various musical phenomena in relationship with the tradition they belong to and how they forge—or are forged by—the modernity of their own times. What also unites these papers, belonging to scholars from different musicological traditions and focused on otherwise heterogeneous topics, is the shared belief that music signifies that it has a meaning and it has a message. Thus, musical signification stands at the core of this collection.

The book is divided into five sections. Part I is dedicated to broader views on music history. Eero Tarasti’s study sets the tone for the volume, contextualizing the central concept of “modern” and considering it from multiple angles—existential, philosophical and phenomenological. To find its meaning in music, Tarasti looks back to the beginning of the twentieth century and explores modernity as it manifested
in various geographical regions. “Modern” is then analyzed from a semiotic standpoint. An important aspect of Tarasti’s study is the distinction he operates between “innovation” and “novelty.”

Konstantin Zenkin discusses at length some of the paradigms that articulate European classical music, among which he analyzes speech, gesture-dance-ritual and the laws of natural processes. With special focus on the twentieth century, Konstantin Zenkin points to Igor Stravinsky as the leading figure of a generation that fueled radical changes while never abandoning the heritage of the predecessors.

In her interdisciplinary approach connecting music to literature and neurosciences, Márta Grabócz examines the invariants and universals and their influence on memory. She looks at the musical topics as a special type of invariants, with concrete examples from Classicism and Romanticism and from the works of composers such as Liszt and Mahler.

Dario Martinelli takes the debate around the two main concepts of this volume into the field of popular music: music videos are considered from the angle of historical semiotics, i.e., defined and classified according to their main stylistic traits, followed back to their roots in the late nineteenth century and marked by the revolutionary achievements of The Beatles.

Part II deals with the musical text from the point of view of philosophy and narrative strategies. Paulo C. Chagas proposes a phenomenological approach of the relationship between music and affect, discussing concepts such as “autopoiesis,” “self-organization” and “self-realization.” The same phenomenological perspective is subsequently used to look into electroacoustic music and the musics of Morton Feldman and Yannis Xenakis.

Mark Reybrouck’s paper discusses how listening to music creates a multi-layered experience and how the meaning of music comes from the complex interaction between the senses, physiology, behavior and cognition.

Takemi Sosa’s study focuses on narrativity and musical gestures. Byron Almén’s and Eero Tarasti’s theories, among others, are taken as references and applied to examples from Beethoven and Mahler.

Narrativity is also the concept at the center of Joan Grimalt’s research, this time oriented toward the instrumental music of the Classical era and the theory of musical topics. Joan Grimalt is particularly interested in finding the source of the musical humor and explores some of its various instances in the music of the Viennese composers.

Part III comprises studies on musical performance. Juha Ojala explores it from a semiotic perspective: the musical work is seen as a legisign, whereas the performance as a sinsign. The performer’s creativity, its boundaries and constraints, as well as the performer’s “working space” are among the main concepts analyzed.

Eveliina Sumelius-Lindblom examines Adorno’s critical theory from the performer’s standpoint, whereas the two methods she uses (conceptual analysis and embodied intertextuality) concern the act of musical performance in itself. This theo- retical basis is then used to explain Stravinsky’s neoclassicism and the substantial intertextual ramifications that define it.

Part IV of the volume focuses on the issue of national identities. Thus, self and identity are the two main concepts around which Ewa Schreiber builds her research. The two paradigms she chooses to exemplify her theoretical findings are the modern composers György Ligeti and Jonathan Harvey, two apparently diametrically opposed personalities as far as their views on the concept of identity are concerned, but who, nevertheless, share a common ground.

Iwona Sowkinska-Fruhtrunk examines the concepts of perception and mimetic hypothesis as theorized by Arnie Cox, which she applies to Schoenberg’s Chamber Symphony.

Miloš Bralovic ́’s study is dedicated to Serbian composer Stanojlo Rajicˇic ́ and, more specifically, to the musical references he made to other composers, to how these references shaped Rajicˇic ́’s own vocabulary and how the two works chosen for a detailed analysis reflect the maturity of his style.
Dániel Nagy discusses Béla Bartók’s reception in Hungary, where he was considered as the leading representative of the cultural identity of the country. Dániel Nagy examines the place that Bartók occupies in the Hungarian discourse on national iden- tity and the influence that this discourse had on the musicological research on the composer.

Elena Boanca ̆ brings to the foreground a Romanian artist whose international reputation is mainly due to his successful career as a conductor, but who was also an outstanding composer. His musical career is scrutinized through the relationship with the communist regime of Silvestri’s native land.

Part V is dedicated to Brazilian traditions and also pays homage to a country from which many scholars preoccupied with musical signification have emerged. Ricardo Nogueira de Castro Monteiro analyzes, from a semiotic perspective, how myths and rituals are structured and provides the case study on the Reisado, a specific type of Epiphany celebration, encountered in the Brazilian region of Cariri.

Heloísa de Duarte Valente presents a history of the musical genre of fado, seen as a link between Brazil, its country of origin, and Portugal. Special attention is given to the Brazilian city of Santos, the place with the largest population of Portuguese immigrants.

Rodrigo Felicissimo’s study is a comparative analysis of Villa-Lobos’s tone poem Uirapuru, Stravinsky’s Firebird suite and Sibelius’s Tapiola, with the aim of revealing the common ground of musical signifiers that are to be found in these works. Conducting the research of primary documents that attest to the compositional process of the three works, Rodrigo Felicissimo discusses issues related to legends, myths and nature, and how they define national identities and musical styles.

I would like to express my gratitude to the authors for their contribution and commitment to making this volume possible, and I hope the readers will enjoy these pages as much as we enjoyed putting them together.

Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Oana Andreica
February 2022

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